1500 - Pedro Álvares Cabral's expedition arrives in Brazil.
1501 - Américo Vespucci makes an exploratory expedition on the Brazilian coast.
1504 - French navigators arrive in Brazil to explore the territory.
1530 - The regime of hereditary captaincies is instituted by Dom João III. The colonizing expedition of Martim Afonso arrives in Brazil.
1532 - Founded Vila de São Vicente, first village in Brazil by Martim Afonso.
1534 - Brazil is divided into hereditary captaincies. Beginning of Indian slavery in Brazil.
1543 - The first Santa Casa do Brasil is founded by Braz Cubas.
1548 - Created the general government to centralize the administration of the colony.
1549 - The city of Salvador is founded. Brazil's first general government with Tomé de Souza is constituted.
1550 - Starts cattle breeding in Brazil, with the arrival of species. Salvador comes the first wave of slaves from Africa.
1555 - The French found Antarctic France in Rio de Janeiro.
1562 - João Ramalho becomes Captain-General of São Paulo de Piratininga.
1563 - The city of São Sebastião (Rio de Janeiro) is founded by Estácio de Sá.
1567 - The French are expelled from Rio de Janeiro.
1570 - The freedom of the Indians is guaranteed by the Royal Charter.
1571 - Dom Sebastião's decree determines that only Portuguese ships carry goods to Brazil.
1578 - Francis Drake and other English privateers explore redwood in Maranhão.
1580 - Beginning of the Spanish domain, also called Iberian Union.
1584 - The Portuguese begin the conquest of Paraíba.
1585 - The fort around which the current city of João Pessoa grew up is built by Martim Leitão.
1586 - Spanish and Portuguese unsuccessfully try to expel the French from Paraíba.
1587 - Foreign boats are prohibited from anchoring in Brazil. English captain Thomas Cavendish practices piracy in St. Vincent.
1595 - Law of Philip II prohibits the enslavement of the Indians. Attack of the English privateer James Lancaster in Recife.
1596 - British found factories in the Amazon River Delta.
1599 - Jerônimo de Albuquerque pacifies the Portuguese in Paraíba and founds Natal.
1605 - Spanish Government prohibits foreigners from landing in Brazil and other parts of the Portuguese overseas.
1612 - The French invade Maranhão and found Equinoctial France.
1615 - Jeronimo de Albuquerque, Alexandre Moura and Francisco Caldeira seize the fort of São Luiz do Maranhão, defeating Equinoctial France.
1616 - The city of Santa Maria do Belem, Paraná, is founded by Francisco Caldeira.
1619 - Tupinambás Indians revolt, but are defeated in Pará.
1621 - The State of Maranhão (Maranhão, Ceará and Pará), is created by the Spanish Crown.
1624 - The Dutch invade Bahia; the Portuguese establish resistance.
1625 - The Dutch are expelled from Bahia with the support of the Spanish squad.
1630 - The Dutch attack Pernambuco and settle down.
1637 - Mauricio de Nassau, Dutch governor of Pernambuco, expels the Luso-Brazilian troops towards Bahia.
1638 - Starts João Dias' expedition towards the south of the country.