The story

Incas (continued)

Incas (continued)



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Festivals

The Incas had a thirty-day calendar in which each month had its own festival.

The months and calendar celebrations are as follows.

Gregorian Month

Inca Month

Translation

January

Huchuy pacoy

Little harvest

February

Hatun pocoy

Big harvest

March

Pawqar Waraq

Bunch of flowers

April

Ayriwa

Young Corn Dance

May

Aymuray

Harvest Song

June

Inti Raymi

Sun Festival

July

Anta Situwa

Earthly purification

August

Qapaq Situwa

General Purification Sacrifice

September

Qaya Raymi

Queen's Festival

October

A raymi

Water festival

November

Ayamarqa

Procession of the dead

December

Qapaq Raymi

Magnificent festival

Funeral customs

The Incas believed in reincarnation. Those who obeyed the rule, loves your, loves llulla, loves chella (do not steal, do not lie and do not be lazy), when they die they would live in the heat of the sun while the disobedient would spend their days forever in the cold land.

The Incas also practiced the process of mummification, especially of the most prominent deceased persons. Next to the mummies were buried a great many objects of the taste or usefulness of the dead. From their graves, they believed, the mummies mallqui could talk to ancestors or other spirits huacas from that region. Mummies were sometimes called upon to witness important facts and preside over various rituals and celebrations. Usually the deceased was buried sitting.

Economic Organization of the Inca Empire

The Inca Empire had an economic organization of character close to the Asian mode of production, in which all levels of society paid taxes to the emperor, known as The Inca. The Inca It was deified and carried in litters with great pomp and style. He wore special clothes, headdresses, and adornments that demonstrated his superiority and power. He claimed his power by claiming to be a descendant of gods (divine origin of royal power). BelowThe Inca There were four main classes of citizens.

The first was the royal family, nobles, military leaders, and religious leaders. These people controlled the Inca Empire and many lived in Cusco. Next were the governors of the four provinces in which the Inca Empire was divided. They had a lot of power because they organized the troops, collected the tributes and had to impose the law and establish the order. Below the governors were the local military officers, responsible for minor trials and the settlement of minor disputes that could even give punishment. Below were the peasants who were the majority of the population.

Among the peasants, the basic structure of territorial organization was the ayllu. O ayllu It was a village community made up of several families whose members considered themselves to have a common ancestor (real or fictitious). Every ayllu corresponded to a certain territory. O kuraca was the boss of ayllu. He was responsible for distributing the land to the community members able to work.
There were three agricultural work orders:

  • performed for the benefit of Inca and the royal family;
  • intended for the family's subsistence, carried out on the appropriate plot of land;
  • within the village community to respond to the needs of the poor.

In fact, the aid system between families was very developed. In addition to the collective land, there were reserves intended to alleviate shortages in times of famine or to be used whenever the village was visited by an Inca delegation.

Another of the duties of each member of the community was to collaborate in collective work, such as maintaining irrigation canals.

The nobles were called by the Spaniards "earphones" because of the impression they had of their huge ears, augmented by the large pendants they wore. The "earers" were educated in special schools for four years. They studied Quechua language, religion, Quipus, history, geometry, geography, and astronomy. At the end of their studies, they graduated from a solemn ceremony where they demonstrated their preparation by passing some tests.

They dressed in white and gathered in Cusco Square. All the candidates had their hair cut and had a black feathered mourning on their heads. After praying in the sun, moon, and thunder, they climbed the hill of Huanacaui, where they fasted, competed, and danced.

Later, the Inca handed them tights, a feather diadem and a metal breastplate. Finally he pierced each other's ears personally with a golden needle so that they could use their characteristic pendants of their kind.

The "earphones" had various privileges, including land tenure and polygamy. They received gifts from the monarch, such as women, llamas, precious objects, permission to use litter or throne.

They constituted the officials of the Empire. First were the four Apu, or administrators of the four parts of the Empire, who directly advised the Emperor. Below them were the tucricues, or provincial governors who resided in their capitals, and were periodically inspected.

The Incas were tasked with mastering the work they were to do, how much and what land they could cultivate and how far they could travel. After adapting to such rules, they were well regarded by the dominators.

If an Inca was accused of theft but this was not proved, the local officer himself charged with maintaining order was punished for not doing his job properly.

Invalid and incapable were helped to provide their livelihood with work. Married women were given skeins of wool to make clothes.

All Incas were required to work for the Empire and their domestic gods (mita).

The Incas were not free to travel and their children always had to follow their parents' office. The Inca Empire was divided into four parts. All activities of the inhabitants were overseen by Empire officials.