Under the leadership of Getúlio Vargas, a provisional government was established, which lasted until 1934. Although victorious over the 1932 constitutionalist revolution that took place in São Paulo, Vargas was obliged to convene a constituent assembly, which gave the country a new constitution ( 1934), of a liberal nature.
In 1935, the National Liberating Alliance (ANL) promoted a military revolt known as the communist intent. Taking advantage of a favorable environment, Vargas gave a coup d'état in 1937, closing the Congress and establishing a corporate-fascist dictatorship, called Estado Novo, governed by an authoritative letter granted. Vargas ruled until 1945, when he was deposed by a new military coup.
During his government, industrialization was encouraged, including the founding of Companhia Siderúrgica Nacional, labor legislation was established, the State administrative apparatus was reorganized, with the creation of new ministries, and social security was taken care of, among others. other upgrades.
Third Republic. The 1945 elections appointed General Eurico Gaspar Dutra as the new President of the Republic. During his government, Brazil gained a new constitution, the highway between Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo (Presidente Dutra highway) was modernized and the hydroelectric use of Paulo Afonso waterfall began.
During this period, the three major parties that were important in Brazilian political life were established until the outbreak of the 1964 military movement: the Brazilian Labor Party (PTB), the Social Democratic Party (PSD) and the National Democratic Union (UDN). The Brazilian Communist Party (PCB) was put into illegality.
In 1951, PTB candidate Vargas returned to power, elected by popular vote. In his second government, the creation of Petrobras, a state-owned company designed to monopolize the research, extraction and refining of oil, stood out. It was a troubled period, which occurred in the attack on Tonelero Street (directed at journalist Carlos Lacerda, but in which an Air Force officer died) one of its most important episodes. Pressured by the conservative classes, and threatened with overthrow by his generals, Vargas committed suicide on August 24, 1954.
The election of PSD candidate Juscelino Kubitschek de Oliveira ushered in the era of developmentalism. During his government, guided by the Plan of Goals, the new capital, Brasília, was inaugurated on April 21, 1960; Numerous roads were opened, linking the capital to the various regions of the country, including Belém - Brasília; the automobile industry was established; and the construction of the large hydroelectric power plants of Três Marias and Furnas was boosted. The presidential succession fell to Uranus-supported Jânio Quadros, who, after seven months of government, resigned.
Joao Goulart's rise to power upset the conservative classes and high military chiefs. At the beginning of his government, Brazil lived a short parliamentary experience, a solution found to give Goulart inauguration. It was a period marked by strikes and intense union unrest. The president ended up being deposed by the military with support from the middle class in 1964.
Military regime. Military governments were primarily concerned with national security. They issued various institutional and complementary acts, promoting changes in the functioning of the Congress and taking economic, financial and political measures. The traditional political parties were extinguished, and two new political associations were created, the National Renewing Alliance (Arena) and the Brazilian Democratic Movement (MDB).
In 1967, a new constitution was enacted that established an even stronger executive power. With the growth of student and worker unrest, was published the Institutional Act No. 5, which closed the Congress. In 1969, Constitutional Amendment # 1 gave the country virtually a new political charter.
In the field of economic development, the attention of the rulers and technocrats turned primarily to the fight against inflation, which had reached alarming levels; for the construction of infrastructure works, especially in the transport areas - such as the Transamazônica highway and the Rio - Niterói bridge (officially, Presidente Costa e Silva bridge) -, of communications - with the implementation of the satellite communication - and energy, with the construction of the Itaipu hydroelectric plant - through an agreement with Paraguay - and the signing of an agreement with Germany for the construction of nuclear plants.
The Geisel government began a process of democratic, slow and gradual opening, leading to political amnesty, which allowed the return of numerous exiles to the country. Following the amnesty came the end of bipartisanship, and various political parties were created. At the end of the 1970s, the popular and trade union movement took a fresh breath, which would lead, in the early years of the following decade, to the “direct now” movement, which, although not victorious, allowed in 1985 the indirect election by the Tancredo Neves Congress, of the Brazilian Democratic Movement Party (PMDB), for the presidency of the Republic. With the death of Tancredo Neves, on the eve of his inauguration, he assumed his vice president, José Sarney.
The Sarney administration had as its most important economic fact the implementation of the Cruzado Plan, aimed at combating inflation through price freeze and currency exchange. The striking political fact of the period was the election of a constituent national assembly, which in 1988 gave Brazil a new constitution. The failure of the economic plan and widespread corruption contributed to polarize the electoral preferences in 1989 around the candidacies of Fernando Collor de Mello, supported by powerful political forces, and Luis Inacio Lula da Silva, of the Workers Party.
Fernando Collor's victory provoked a momentary euphoria, soon dissipated by the failure of successive economic plans and accusations of corruption that hit figures close to the president. After intense popular movement, Collor was ousted from government in 1992 by the impeachment process conducted by the National Congress.
President Itamar Franco, Fernando Collor's successor, had wide parliamentary and popular support. Its main objectives were to combat inflation, resume economic growth and reduce the poverty of the Brazilian people. The success of the economic measures allowed the election of the Real Plan's creator, Fernando Henrique Cardoso, who won the Presidency of the Republic, and was president for two terms, from 1995 to 1998 and from 1999 to 2002.
On October 27, 2002, Luiz Inacio Lula da Silva was elected President of the Federative Republic of Brazil with almost 53 million votes, and October 29, 2006 is re-elected with more than 58 million votes (60.83% of valid votes).
On October 31, 2010, Dilma Rousseff was elected president of Brazil, a position to be held for the first time in the country's history by a woman. Dilma Roussef obtained 55,752,529 votes, which accounted for 56.05% of the total valid votes. In his official statement after winning the election said: "I will make a government committed to the eradication of misery and provide opportunities for all Brazilians. But I humbly call on the nation, the business people, the workers, the press, the good people of the country to help me.”