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List of Later Assyrian Kings
Assur-nasirpal II (885-860 B.C.) A cruel warrior king, he made Assyria into the most fierce fighting machine of ancient world.
Shalmaneser III (860-825 B.C.) he was the first Assyrian king to come into conflict with Israel. King Ahab fought against him, and king Jehu paid him tribute.
Shansi-adad (825-808 B.C.) Assyria in decline
Adad-nirari (808-783 B.C.) Assyria in decline
Shalmaneser IV (783-771 B.C.) Assyria in decline
Assur-dayan (771-753 B.C.) Assyria in decline
Assur-lush (753-747 B.C.) Assyria in decline
Tiglath-pileser III (Pul) (747-727 B.C.) He carried the Northern Kingdom of Israel into captivity.
Shalmaneser V (727-722 B.C.) He besieged Samaria and died during the siege.
Sargon II (722-705 B.C.) He completed the destruction of Samaria and the captivity of Israel.
Sennacherib (705-681 B.C.) He was the most famous of the Assyrian kings, he mentions the name of Hezekiah on his prism. His army was defeated at the gates of Jerusalem by the Angel of the Lord. He also conquered Babylon.
Esar-haddon (681-668 B.C.) He rebuilt Babylon and conquered Egypt. He was one of Assyria's greatest kings.
Assur-banipal (668-626 B.C.) He destroyed the Thebes in Egypt and collected a great library, innumerable clay tablets were found.
Assur-etil-ilani (626-607 B.C.) It was under his reign that the Assyrian Empire fell.
Assyrian annals mention contacts with some ten Hebrew kings: Omri, Ahab, Jehu, Menahem, Hoshea, Pekah, Uzziah, Ahaz, Hezekiah, and Manasseh.
In the reign of Hoshea, king of Israel, Shalmaneser, king of Assyria, twice invaded (2 Kings 17:3,5) the kingdom that remained, and his successor Sargon II took Samaria in 722 BC, carrying away 27,290 of the population as he tells in his Khorsabad Annals. Later Assyrian kings, particularly Esarhaddon (681 BC - 668 BC), completed the task.
"Heaven and earth will pass away but My Word will abide forever."
"Therefore the LORD was very angry with Israel, and removed them from His sight there was none left but the tribe of Judah alone. . And the LORD rejected all the descendants of Israel, afflicted them, and delivered them into the hand of plunderers, until He had cast them from His sight." (The Book of 2 Kings) Isa 10:5-7 "Woe to Assyria, the rod of My anger And the staff in whose hand is My indignation. I will send him against an ungodly nation, And against the people of My wrath I will give him charge, To seize the spoil, to take the prey, And to tread them down like the mire of the streets. Yet he does not mean so, Nor does his heart think so But it is in his heart to destroy, And cut off not a few nations." The Northern Kingdom consisted of 10 of the tribes (excluding Judah and Benjamin). It lasted for about 210 years until it was destroyed by Assyria in 722 BC. Its capital was Samaria. Every king of Israel was evil. In the northern kingdom there were 9 dynasties (family lines of kings) and 19 kings in all. An average of 11 years to a reign. 8 of these kings met death by violence. The epitaph written over every one of its kings was: I King 15:34 "and he did evil in the sight of the LORD, and walked in the way of Jeroboam, and in his sin by which he had made Israel to sin." It was king Ahab who introduced Baal worship to them. I King 16:30-33 "Now Ahab the son of Omri did evil in the sight of the LORD, more than all who were before him. And it came to pass, as though it had been a trivial thing for him to walk in the sins of Jeroboam the son of Nebat, that he took as wife Jezebel the daughter of Ethbaal, king of the Sidonians and he went and served Baal and worshiped him. Then he set up an altar for Baal in the temple of Baal, which he had built in Samaria. And Ahab made a wooden image. Ahab did more to provoke the LORD God of Israel to anger than all the kings of Israel who were before him." The last king was Hoshea (2 Ki 17). The petty wars of the past, wars with Syria and Edom, Ammon and Philistia, were now to give way to war on an ominous new scale. A world empire was being gathered into the ruthless hands of the Assyrians. The ruthless and cruel Assyrians (under Sargon II) besieged Samaria for 3 years and finally it fell, Israel was doomed. The Assyrians hauled them away into captivity (722 BC). But the Lord always reminded them of why judgment came: II Ki 17:7-23 "For so it was that the children of Israel had sinned against the LORD their God, who had brought them up out of the land of Egypt, from under the hand of Pharaoh king of Egypt and they had feared other gods, and had walked in the statutes of the nations whom the LORD had cast out from before the children of Israel, and of the kings of Israel, which they had made. Also the children of Israel secretly did against the LORD their God things that were not right, and they built for themselves high places in all their cities, from watchtower to fortified city. They set up for themselves sacred pillars and wooden images on every high hill and under every green tree. There they burned incense on all the high places, like the nations whom the LORD had carried away before them and they did wicked things to provoke the LORD to anger, for they served idols, of which the LORD had said to them, "You shall not do this thing." Yet the LORD testified against Israel and against Judah, by all of His prophets, every seer, saying, "Turn from your evil ways, and keep My commandments and My statutes, according to all the law which I commanded your fathers, and which I sent to you by My servants the prophets." Nevertheless they would not hear, but stiffened their necks, like the necks of their fathers, who did not believe in the LORD their God. And they rejected His statutes and His covenant that He had made with their fathers, and His testimonies which He had testified against them they followed idols, became idolaters, and went after the nations who were all around them, concerning whom the LORD had charged them that they should not do like them. So they left all the commandments of the LORD their God, made for themselves a molded image and two calves, made a wooden image and worshiped all the host of heaven, and served Baal. And they caused their sons and daughters to pass through the fire, practiced witchcraft and soothsaying, and sold themselves to do evil in the sight of the LORD, to provoke Him to anger. Therefore the LORD was very angry with Israel, and removed them from His sight there was none left but the tribe of Judah alone. . And the LORD rejected all the descendants of Israel, afflicted them, and delivered them into the hand of plunderers, until He had cast them from His sight. For He tore Israel from the house of David, and they made Jeroboam the son of Nebat king. Then Jeroboam drove Israel from following the LORD, and made them commit a great sin. For the children of Israel walked in all the sins of Jeroboam which he did they did not depart from them, until the LORD removed Israel out of His sight, as He had said by all His servants the prophets. So Israel was carried away from their own land to Assyria, as it is to this day." Eusebius'Chronicle
Here is the way the Chaldeans describe the kings of their land, from Alorus to [g76] Alexander. There is no special attention given to Ninus or Semiramis. So saying, [Abydenus] begins [g77] his account. He says that [the kings of the Assyrians] were Ninus, son of Arbelus, son of Chaalus, son of Arbelus, son of Anebus, son of Babus, son of the Assyrian king Belus [g78].
Then [Abydenus] describes [the rulers] one by one, from Ninus and Semiramis to Sardanapallus, who was the last of them. From the latter until the first [g79] Olympiad 67 years elapsed. Abydenus wrote about each of the Assyrian kings, one by one [g80] in this fashion. He is not the sole [author to write about them]. Castor, too, in the summary of his first Chronology describes the Assyrian kings in the same manner to the refuge of Solomon.
From the Summary of Castor, on the kingdom of the Assyrians.
[Castor] says: "Belus was the king of the Assyrians. During his reign [g81], the Cyclopes, using thunder and lightning, fought on Zeus' side in the battle Zeus (Aramazd) fought against the Titans. The kings of the Titans were known at this time, one of them being Ogygus. [Castor], after some brief words about him, states that the giants attacked the gods and were defeated after Heracles and Dionysius--who were descended from the Titans--came to the aid of the gods.
Belus, about whom we spoke earlier, died and was regarded as a god. After him Ninus ruled the Assyrians as king for 52 years. He married Semiramis. After [Ninus], Semiramis was the monarch for 42 years. Then Zames, also called Ninyas, ruled. Then [Castor continues] to mention each of the successive kings of the Assyrians to Sardanapallus. Shortly we too will provide a list of the names and regnal years of the monarchs. [Castor], in his Canons, also writes about who succeeded them [i.e. the rulers after Sardanapallus].
[Castor states:] First we described the kings of the Assyrians starting with Belus, but since the length of [g82] his reign has not been passed down with certainty, we have merely recorded his name. We have begun the chronology with Ninus and ended it with the other Ninus who held the kingship after Sardanapallus. In this fashion the entire duration [of the kingdom] may be shown clearly, as well as each individual king's [reign]. Thus it turns out that the [total] duration [of the Assyrian kingdom] was 1,280 years. This is Castor's [account]. Diodorus Siculus collected the same [material] in his Library. Here is what he wrote.
 From Diodorus' work on the kingdom of the Assyrians.
No testimony of the first kings of the Asian world [g83] has survived--neither about their deeds nor [even] their names. Ninus was the first king of the Assyrians found to be worthy of historical remembrance. [Ninus]' deeds and valor were great, and we shall endeavor to describe them briefly. And [Diodorus] informs after narrating other things, that Ninus had a son Ninyas from Semiramis, and that after [Ninus]' death, Semiramis buried Ninus' body in the palace [out of sight] and stopped being queen [ruling instead as king]. Then after a bit [Diodorus] says that Semiramis ruled over all the Asians except the Indians. She died as we previously stated after living 62 years and [g84] reigning for 42 years. Separately [Castor] says that after [Semiramis'] death, Ninyas, son of Ninus and Semiramis assumed power. He maintained peace, not emulating his mother's martial and industrious manner.
Again, further on, [Diodorus] says that in such a fashion royal power was handed down from father to son, from generation to generation until [g85] Sardanapallus. During his reign royal power passed from the Assyrians to the Medes, after lasting more than 1,300 years as Ctesias of Cnidus observes in his second book. But [these authors] did not bother to record the names of these kings or the lengths of their reigns, since they accomplished nothing worthy of recall. The only event meriting recording [during this interval] was the [military] assistance sent to the Trojans by the Assyrians under general Memnon, Tithonus' son [g86].
While Teutamus--the 26th king from Semiramis' son, Ninyas--was the reigning king of the Asian world the Greeks, under Agamemnon, mustered troops and went to the land of the Trojans to fight. By this time the Assyrians had ruled over Asia for more than a thousand years. Priam, king of Troy, in difficulty because of the war, beseechingly requested [g87] military aid from the Assyrian king. [Teutamus acceded] and provided [Priam] with 10,000 [troops] from the land of the Ethiopians, an equal number from the Nusians, and two hundred chariots, [all] under [the command of] Tithonus' son Memnon. [Diodorus] further states that the barbarians said that Memnon had performed such feats of bravery that they were recorded in the royal books.
Sardanapallus, the 35th king from Ninus who [g88] organized the state, became the final king of the Assyrians. He surpassed all his predecessors in luxurious living and laziness. After a bit [Diodorus] informs that [Sardanapallus] was so dissolute that not only did he ruin his own life, but he wreaked the entire Assyrian state which had endured from time immemorial. Now it happened that there was a certain Arbaces of Median nationality, a virtuous stout-hearted man who was a general of the Medes who were sent each year to Ninus' city. In the course of his military duties, he became friendly with the commander-in-chief of the Median army, who beseeched him to overthrow the Assyrian government. This is what Diodorus relates in book two of the Historical Library. Cephalion also mentions Assyrian rule. Here is what he says [g89].
 The historian Cephalion on the Assyrian kingdom.
Let me begin by writing about what others too have written. First Hellanicus [g90] of Lesbos and Ctesias of Cnidus, followed by Herodotus of Halicarnassus [have written about the Assyrians]. The first of the Assyrians to rule over the Asians was Belus' son, Ninus. During his reign many valorous deeds were done. Then he continues to discuss the birth of Semiramis, Zoroaster the Mage, war with the king of the Bactrians and the military defeat by Semiramis. Ninus' reign lasted for 52 years, and then he died. After him [g91] Semiramis ruled. It was she who built the walls around Babylon in the manner described by many [writers such as] Ctesias, Zenon, Herodotus and others after him.
Then he describes how Semiramis mustered troops [and went] against India, her defeat and flight how she killed her own sons and then was killed by her son Ninyas, after a reign of 42 years. Then Ninyas assumed power. Cephalion says that he did nothing worthy of recall. Then he and others describe how for a thousand years power passed from father to son with none of them [g92] ruling for less than 20 years. Disliking warfare and strife they were effeminate, carefully keeping themselves fortified indoors, doing nothing, and seeing no one except their concubines or effeminate men. It seems to me that Ctesias records the names of some 23 of these kings, should someone want to know about them in more detail. But what pleasure or satisfaction would it bring to record the barbaric names [g93] of despicable, weak savages who displayed neither valor nor brave deeds?
[Cephalion] says next that 640 years later, Belimus ruled over the Assyrians. Perseus, [son] of Danae arrived in his land with 100 ships. He was escaping from Semele's son, Dionysius. After describing the defeat of Perseus by Dionysius, [Cephalion] says that in later times, when Pannyas [g94] ruled over the Assyrians, the fleet of the Argonauts sailed up the Phasis River to Mende' in Colchis. Hercules had [previously] left the ship out of his desire and longing for Hylas. As they say, he wandered about seeking [Hylas] in Cappadocia. Furthermore [Cephalion] says that 1000 years had elapsed from Semiramis to King Mitraeus. If one computes it, [the story of Medea and the period of King Mitreus] join up. [It was then] that Medea left King Aegeus [?Aeetes] of Colchis out of lust [for Jason]. Her son was Medus, whence Media, that is the [Armenian term] Mark' ("Medes"). Moreover that land is called Media, [g95] which is Marastan [in Armenian]. [Cephalion] says that Teutamus succeeded Mitraeus. The former also lived according to the customs and laws of the Assyrians. Nothing new occurred during his reign.
Agamemnon and Menelaeus, the Mycenaeans, mustered troops with the Argives and went against the city of Ilium while Priam was general of Phrygia. He said: "The Greek troops [g96] which have come against me have reached your own land. We have engaged them in battle, sometimes winning, sometimes losing. But now, behold, my own son Hector has died among many other brave sons. Send us auxiliary troops under a courageous general." [Cephalion] then describes in detail how Teutamus sent assistance to him under the generalship of Memnon, Tithonus' son. However, the Thessalians (T'eghaghats'ik) treacherously killed him. In another passage [Cephalion] says that Sardanapallus became king of the Assyrians in the 1,013 th year and then he describes his destruction. After the death of Sardanapallus, (V)Arbaces the Mede, destroyed the power of the Assyrians and transferred rule to the Medes. All this is related by Cephalion.
Here is a list of the Assyrian kings, based on the most trustworthy writings [g97].
 Kings of the Assyrians.
|3||Zhames, also called Ninyas||38||years|
|5||Aralius, also called Amyrus||40||years|
|6||Xerxes, also called Balaeus||30||years|
Once Arbaces had destroyed Assyrian rule, he designated Belesius as king of the Babylonians. [Arbaces] himself transferred the authority of the Assyrians to the Medes. Here is [a table of] their [kings'] reigns [g100].
Babylonian chronology before 747 bc
In the long interval between the fall of the last Sumerian dynasty c. 2000 bc and 747 bc there are two substantial gaps in chronology, each about two centuries long. The earlier gap is in the 2nd millennium, from approximately 1600–1400 bc , the later gap in the 1st millennium, from c. 943–747 bc . During these gaps the names of most of the kings are known, as well as the order, but usually not the length of their reigns.
A means of checking the reliability of the Babylonian king list is provided by the chronicles, annals, and other historical texts that show that a given Assyrian king was contemporaneous with a given Babylonian king. There are no fewer than 15 such synchronisms between 1350 and 1050 bc , and, when the Babylonian and Assyrian king lists are compared, they all fit in easily. Only one of them, however, provides a close approximate date in Babylonian chronology. This synchronism shows that the two-year reign of the Assyrian king Ashared-apil-Ekur (c. 1076–c. 1075 bc ) is entirely comprised within the 13-year reign of the Babylonian king Marduk-shapik-zeri. The Assyrian’s dates are probably correct to within one year. Thus, if Marduk-shapik-zeri is dated so that equal proportions of his reign fall before and after that of Ashared-apil-Ekur, a date is obtained for the former that should not be in error more than six years. This synchronism constitutes a key to the structure of Babylonian chronology by providing the base date for all the reigns in the interval c. 1400–943 bc for which the Babylonian king list gives figures. All the dates thus obtained are subject to the six-year margin of error.
These synchronisms between Assyrian and Babylonian kings continue throughout the period that corresponds to the second gap in the Babylonian king list—from c. 943–747 bc . Since the Assyrian chronology in that period is firmly established, these synchronisms provide a useful framework for the structure of Babylonian chronology in that period.
The gap in the 2nd millennium bc , however, is not as easy to fill. The fact that the magnitude of the gap is uncertain constitutes the main problem in the chronology of the 2nd millennium bc and also affects the chronology of the preceding Sumerian period. The problem is not yet solved. Observations of the planet Venus made during the reign of King Ammisaduqa, less than 50 years before the end of the 1st dynasty of Babylon, permit only certain possible dates for his reign. Translated into dates for the end of the dynasty, the three most likely possibilities are 1651, 1595, and 1587 bc . The evidence is not yet conclusive and leaves uncertain what choice should be made among the three. The chronology adopted here is based on the second of these dates for the end of the 1st Babylonian dynasty—i.e., 1595 bc .
Prior to this gap in the 2nd millennium bc , there is a period of five centuries with a well-established chronological structure. All the kings in the major city-states are known, as well as their sequence and the length of their reigns. Which sets of dates should be assigned to these reigns, however, depends on the date adopted for the 1st dynasty of Babylon. This period of five centuries extends from the beginning of the 3rd dynasty of Ur to the end of the 1st dynasty of Babylon—i.e., on the chronology adopted here, 2113–1595 bc . During this period the Babylonians dated their history not by regnal years but by the names of the years. Each year had an individual name, usually from an important event that had taken place in the preceding year. The lists of these names, called year lists or date lists, constitute as reliable a source in Babylonian chronology as the eponym lists do in Assyrian chronology. One of the events which almost invariably gave a name to the following year was the accession of a new king. Hence, the first full regnal year of a king was called “the year (after) NN became king.” In Assyria the number of personal names in an eponym list between the names of two successive kings normally equalled the number of years in the reign of the first king, and, similarly, in Babylonia the number of year names between two year names of the above kind nearly always equalled the number of years in the reign of the first king. Just as in Assyria, the eponym lists are almost certainly the source of the king lists, so in Babylonia the king lists are based on the year lists. Several of these king lists, compiled at a time when the year lists were still in use, survive. One gives the 3rd dynasty of Ur and the dynasty of Isin another gives the dynasty of Larsa. Both may be school texts.
The 3rd dynasty of Ur and the dynasty of Isin also figure in the Sumerian king list, which reaches far back into the Sumerian period. The original version probably ended before the 3rd dynasty of Ur, but later scribes brought it up to date by adding that dynasty as well as the dynasty of Isin.
King Ninus or Nimrod
King Ninus was believed to be the founder of the ancient capital city of Assyria, Nineveh. There were numerous things credited to him such as being the first to train dogs for hunting and horses for riding giving him the symbol of the centaur in Greek mythology. He is found on the Biblical Timeline during the 19th century BCThese Articles are Written by the Publishers of The Amazing Bible Timeline
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The names of King Ninus with his wife Queen Semiramis were first mentioned in the historical account of Assyria written by Ctesias of Cnidus, who asserted to have gained the knowledge from the court physician of Artaxerxes II. King Ninus was further mentioned by the European historians up to the 19th century.
King Ninus was the son Belus or Bel, which may mean Ba’al or “Lord” in Semitic language. It was thought that he reigned for 52 years and in 17 years, he was able to add all of West Asia to his colonies with the aid of Arabia’s King Ariaeus. He was the first to build an empire. He won the battles against the king of Armenia named Barzanes and King Pharnus of Medea crucifying the latter.
According to the history written by Diodoros, Ninus had invaded all the Asian countries next to his kingdom and fought with the armies of Bactriana. It was during their attack on the kingdom’s capital, Bactra that he met his future wife, Semiramis. Semiramis was the wife of his general named Onnes.
Ninus and Semiramis had a son named Ninyas. After Ninus had died, Semiramis built a temple-tomb to honor him. She ruled as the queen regnant of all of Asia and fought with King Stabrobates of India but lost. She then gave the throne to her son Ninyas.
Nineveh was the heart of ancient Assyria. It is situated in the northern part of Iraq, to the east of the Tigris, in the middle of the once Assyrian Empire. It’s remnants are now found in the city of Mosul.
It was one of the most populous cities in ancient times with lands fertile enough for agriculture and pasture for animals.
It was first mentioned in 1800 BC as the main city in worshipping Ishtar. The Old Testament pictured it as an extraordinarily great city though the land covered by the city itself was not that huge. During the 1847 British Henry Layard excavated the ruins of King Sennacherib’s glorious palace that according to the story had more than 80 rooms.
It played an important role in the trade route as it was situated in the middle of the Mediterranean Sea and the Indian Ocean giving Nineveh an advantage economically. This wealth and being the center city for the god Ishtar built the city’s greatness. But it did not last long. It was annihilated by the allied forces of Scythians and Cimmerians in 612 BC.
Today, this ancient city is inhabited by the Sunnis and the Kurds. On October 2010, Nineveh was one of the 12 heritage sites mentioned that were beyond repair. The devastation was due to urbanization, no proper preservation, and looting. But being the main city in oil processing, it could become an important city in Iraq’s politics.
Mythology and the Bible
King Ninus was first associated with the Biblical “mighty warrior” Nimrod in Clementine literature entitled Recognitions. Recent interpretations of Genesis 10 in the Bible states that it was Nimrod who established the city of Nineveh.
When translated literally the word means “the habitation of Ninus”. Apollodorus further asserted that “Ninus is Nimrod” with the support of Justin and Diodorus’ historical texts pointing out that Ninus had the same leadership attributes as that of the Biblical Nimrod.
The Editorial History of the Assyrian King List
By Shigeo Yamada -- Jerusalem The Assyrian King List, covering the long period of the Assyrian dynastic history, contains in itself clues to examine its textual development. The heterogeneous character of the list is hardly to be explained as the result of a single composition in the late Middle Assyrian period. It is most probable that the text was gradually enlarged through compilation, redactions and updating with various modi operandi during a period of no less than a thousand years. 1. Introduction The Assyrian King List (henceforth AKL), known from five "exemplars," is a list composed of the names of rulers in Assyrian history from ancient times down to the Neo-Assyrian Period.1 This long list has provided historians with a firm basis for the reconstruction of Assyrian history. On the other hand, it has been shown that the data are not always complete and sometimes confusing. Some of the problems involved in AKL must be related to the editorial history of AKL. The question treated in this paper is how AKL, a text covering more than a thousand years of dynastic history, was developed. * This article is a revised version of a part of my MA thesis,
Zeitschrift für Assyriologie und Vorderasiatische Archäologie &ndash de Gruyter
3 Kings of Israel and Judah
The table below shows the kings who reigned in Israel and Judah. The chart covers three of the Times of Israel (Kingdom, Division, and Exile). The period in focus in this lesson starts at the flag marked ISRAEL EXILED. Note that the reigns of kings in each kingdom often overlap because of rivalry or of co-regency.
File:Assyrian king list. Terracotta tablet, from Assur, Iraq. 7th century BCE. Ancient Orient Museum, Istanbul.jpg
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Welcome to CentOS
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