The story

Aeta Lamb

Aeta Lamb

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Aeta Lamb was born in Demerara in 1886. Her father was a botanist and he named her after a palm he had discovered there. On the death of her father in 1891 the family returned to England. She attended Notting Hill High School between 1898-1899.

In 1906 Lamb joined the Women Social & Political Union (WSPU). Her biographer, Vera Douie has argued that: "Being absolutely sexless herself - men for her did not exist - they really did not count. That they were there to do a certain amount of necessary work in the world she admitted but she mostly saw them as oppressors of women."

Lamb spent some time at the WSPU headquarters in London. Sylvia Pankhurst described her as "flitting about like a disembodied spirit; for her paleness and shyness seldom appreciated at her worth." A fellow member commented: "Her hair was really beautiful and fell in long silky waves to her waist but she would insist on screwing it into a horrid little knob on the top of her head." According to Mary Leigh, Lamb was responsible for writing speeches for Christabel Pankhurst.

In October 1906 Lamb was arrested in a demonstration outside the House of Commons. Later she recalled that it was "a terrible ordeal being ridden down by mounted police." She was released after her mother paid her fine. In February 1907 Lamb was arrested at another demonstration and was sentenced to a week in Holloway Prison. Within a few days of her release she was arrested again and this time served four weeks in prison.

In 1908 Lamb joined Annie Kenney, Mary Blathwayt, Clara Codd and Elsie Howey in the West of England campaign. Soon afterwards she was appointed as WSPU in Bristol. In her diary, Emily Blathwayt claimed that for one meeting in April 1908 she "hired six professional boxers to keep order." Lamb also helped Mary Gawthorpe in the Kincardineshire by-election. She followed this with the by-election in Dundee and Pudsey. After this she was based at the WSPU headquarters in London.

Lamb became a regular visitor to Eagle House near Batheaston, the home of fellow WSPU member, Mary Blathwayt. Her father, Colonel Linley Blathwayt was sympathetic to the WSPU cause and he built a summer-house in the grounds of the estate that was called the "Suffragette Rest". On 16th April 1911 Colonel Blathwayt planted a tree, a Texas Baccata Fastigiata, in her honour in his suffragette arboretum in a field adjacent to the house. Emily Blathwayt recorded in her diary that "people like Miss Lamb do not at all like Mrs. Pankhurst's present policy." B. M. Willmott Dobbie the author of A Nest of Suffragettes in Somerset (1979) claims that "frail, timid and nervous, her stamina proved unequal to her enthusiasm, and she withdrew from active participation."

According to Elizabeth Crawford, the author of The Suffragette Movement (1999), during the First World War "she worked in War Depots and afterwards found it very difficult to find work." Vera Douie points out that although she learned shorthand and typing, "her low vitality and her inability to adapt herself to new places and uncongenial people proved great obstacles in her way."

Aeta Lamb died of cancer in the New Hospital for Women in 1928.

Aeta Lamb planted her new tree. The first suffragette to come to this house and now probably the last to plant a tree.

Mary in Bath all day working for the Pankhurst cause - we wish she was not, but the young people all do this kind of thing now and I suppose it is evolution. The oldest supporters are fast leaving the WSPU, especially those old in years, but people like Miss Lamb do not at all like Mrs. Pankhurst's present policy.

Comparative Genomic Hybridization (CGH)

Aetna considers comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) medically necessary for the following indications:

  • Evaluating fetuses with structural abnormalities detected on fetal ultrasound or fetal magnetic resonance imaging or
  • For evaluating histologically equivocal Spitzoid melanocytic neoplasms (Spitz nevus and atypical Spitz tumors) or
  • For pregnant women undergoing invasive prenatal diagnostic testing (amniocentesis or chorionic villus sampling) for any indication or
  • Analyses of fetal tissue (i.e., amniotic fluid, placenta, or products of conception) in the evaluation of intrauterine fetal death or stillbirth.

Aetna considers comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) experimental and investigational for all of the following (not an all-inclusive list) because of insufficient evidence of its effectiveness for these indications :

  • Detection of balanced rearrangements
  • Diagnosis of melanoma
  • Evaluation of autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome
  • Evaluation of primary ovarian insufficiency
  • Evaluation of short stature
  • Evaluation of unexplained epilepsies
  • Testing of the products of conception in pregnancy losses at less than 20 weeks gestation in structurally normal embryos/fetuses
  • Testing of the products of conception in first trimester pregnancy losses including in cases of recurrent pregnancy loss.

Aetna considers CGH medically necessary for diagnosing genetic abnormalities in children with congenital anomalies when the following criteria are met:

  1. Two or more major malformations or
  2. A single major malformation or multiple minor malformations in an infant or child that was born with intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) or was small for gestational age or
  3. A single major malformation and multiple minor malformations and

Aetna considers CGH medically necessary for diagnosing genetic abnormalities in children with intellectual disability (DD/ID) or autism spectrum disorder (ASD) according to accepted Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Medical Disorders 5 (DSM 5) (see Appendix) when all of the following criteria are met:

Footnotes for Genetic Syndrome * CGH is considered not medically necessary when a diagnosis of a disorder or syndrome is readily apparent based on clinical evaluation alone.

Chromosomal microarray analysis is considered experimental and investigational in all other cases of suspected genetic abnormality in children with developmental delay/intellectual disability or autism spectrum disorder except when criteria above are met.

Only one CGH is considered medically necessary per lifetime.

  • The Oligo HD Scan is a type of array CGH.
  • The CombiMatrix DNArray is a CGH test for developmental delay.
  • FirstStep DX Plus Chromosomal Microarray is a type of CGH test which uses buccal swab DNA collection method.


First, a few Bible verses to show that pretribulation doesn’t work

Matthew 24:29IMMEDIATELY AFTER the tribulation of those days shall the sun be darkened, and the moon shall not give her light, and the stars shall fall from heaven, and the powers of the heavens shall be shaken: 30And then shall appear the sign of the Son of man in heaven: and then shall all the tribes of the earth mourn, and they shall see the Son of man coming in the clouds of heaven with power and great glory. 31And he shall send his angels with a great sound of a trumpet, and they (the angels) shall gather together his elect from the four winds, from one end of heaven to the other.

1 Cor. 15:52 In a moment, in the twinkling of an eye, at the last trump: for the trumpet shall sound, and the dead shall be raised incorruptible, and we shall be changed.

2 Thessalonians 2:1 Now we beseech you, brethren, by the (2nd) coming of our Lord Jesus Christ, and by our gathering together unto him, 2 That ye be not soon shaken in mind, or be troubled, neither by spirit, nor by word, nor by letter as from us, as that the day of Christ is at hand.3 Let no man deceive you by any means: for that day shall not come, except there come a falling away first, and that man of sin be revealed, the son of perdition (The AntiChrist)4 Who opposeth and exalteth himself above all that is called God, or that is worshipped so that he as God sitteth in the temple of God, shewing himself that he is God.

1 Thessalonians 4:16For the Lord himself shall descend from heaven with a shout, with the voice of the archangel, and with the trump of God: and the dead in Christ shall rise first:17Then we which are ALIVE and REMAIN (from Tribulation) shall be caught up together with them in the clouds, to meet the Lord in the air: and so shall we ever be with the Lord.

Revelation 7:14And one of the elders answered, saying unto me, What are these whichare arrayed in white robes? and whence came they? And I said unto him, Sir, thou knowest. And he said to me, These are they which came out of great tribulation, and have washed their robes, and made them white in the blood of the Lamb.

Here are names of writers to be very cautious about since they have been guilty of a lot of plagiarizing, historical document revisionism , misquoting of others (and other dishonesty) and most importantly due to their refusal to admit these errors in their writings Tim LaHaye (the same person who wrote the famous Left Behind series which gave him a substantial income) Thomas Ice and Todd Strandberg. They all believe in a pretribulation rapture. I say this so you won’t be deceived by them.

A Counter-Reformation, the Jesuit Commission and possible events leading up to the false teaching

In 1545, the Catholic Church convened one of its most famous councils in history, which took place north of Rome in a city called Trent. One of the main purposes of this Council was for Catholics to plan a counterattack against Martin Luther and the Protestants. This warfare only confirmed in the minds of Protestants the conviction that Papal Rome was indeed the Beast which would ”make war with the saints” (Revelation 13:7). Therefore a new tactic was needed, something less obvious. This is where the Jesuits come in. On August 15, 1534, Ignatius Loyola founded a secretive Catholic order called the Society of Jesus, also known as the Jesuits. Jesuit priests have been known throughout history as the most wicked political arm of the Roman Catholic Church. At the Council of Trent, the Catholic Church gave the Jesuits the specific assignment of destroying Protestantism and bringing people back to the Mother Church. This was to be done not only through the Inquisition and through torture, but also through theology.

At the Council of Trent, the Jesuits were commissioned by the Pope to develop a new interpretation of Scripture that would counteract the Protestant application of the Bible’s Antichrist prophecies to the Roman Catholic Church. Francisco Ribera (1537-1591), a brilliant Jesuit priest and doctor of theology from Spain, basically said, ”Here am I, send me”. In 1590, Ribera published a commentary on the Revelation as a counter-interpretation to the prevailing view among Protestants which identified the Papacy with the Antichrist. Ribera applied all of Revelation but the earliest chapters to the end time rather than to the history of the Church. Antichrist would be a single evil person who would be received by the Jews and would rebuild Jerusalem. Following close behind Francisco Ribera was another brilliant Jesuit scholar, Cardinal Robert Bellarmine (1542-1621) of Rome. In his lectures, he agreed with Ribera. The futurists’ school won general acceptance among Catholics. Through the work of these two tricky Jesuit scholars, we might say that a brand new baby was born into the world. In fact, Francisco Ribera has been called the Father of Futurism.

For almost 300 years after the Council of Trent, Jesuit Futurism remained largely inside the realm of Catholicism, but the plan of the Jesuits was that these theological tenets be adopted by Protestants. This adoption process actually began in the early 1800s in England, and from there it spread to America. Dr. Samuel Roffey Maitland (1792-1866), a lawyer and Bible scholar, became a librarian to the Archbishop of Canterbury. It is very likely that one day he discovered Ribera’s commentary in the library. In any event, in 1826 he published a widely-read book attacking the Reformation and supporting Ribera’s idea of a future one-man Antichrist.

After Dr. Maitland came James H. Todd, a professor of Hebrew at the University of Dublin. Todd accepted the futuristic ideas of Maitland, publishing his own supportive pamphlets and books. Then came John Henry Newman (1801-1890), a member of the Church of England and a leader of the famous Oxford Movement (1833-1845). Through the influence of Maitland, Todd, Newman, and others, a definite ”Romeward movement was already arising, destined to sweep away the old Protestant landmarks, as with a flood.

Why many are deceived to believe in the pretribulation rapture today

According to Bob Gundry and Dave MacPherson, Edward Irving (1792-1834) was most likely the first to publicly make the suggestion of a pretribulational rapture of the Church. When Irving turned to the prophecies, he eventually accepted the one-man Antichrist idea of Todd, Maitland, Bellarmine, and Ribera, yet he went a step furter! As a Presbyterian minister of the Church of Scotland, he attended the prophetic conferences (1826-1830) held by Henry Drummond at Albury Park, England. When Irving first suggested the secret coming of Christ, the controversial idea split those in attendance into factions. Somewhere around 1830, Edward Irving began to teach the unique idea of a two-phase return of Christ, the first phase being a secret rapture prior to the rise of the Antichrist.

In the midst of this growing anti-Protestant climate in England, there arose a man by the name of John Nelson Darby (1800-1882). A brilliant lawyer, pastor, and theologian, he wrote more than 53 books on Bible subjects. He became one of the leaders of a group in Plymouth, England, which became known as the Plymouth Brethren. Darby’s contribution to the development of evangelical theology has been so great that he has been called The Father of Modern Dispensationalism. Yet John Nelson Darby, also became a strong promoter of a Pre-Tribulation Rapture followed by a one-man Antichrist. In his book The Irrationalism of Infidelity (1853), pp. 283-5, he describes in great detail his visit with Margaret MacDonald in her home in Scotland in mid-1830 and talked about her endtime outlook and the Scriptural texts she used for support. Irving and Darby, through the influences of MacDonald, are the main reason to why people have been deceived into believing in pretribulation rapture today since this false idea started with them.

One of the most important figures in this whole drama is Cyrus Ingerson Scofield (1843-1921), a Kansas lawyer who was greatly influenced by the writings of Darby. In 1909, Scofield published the first edition of his famous Scofield Reference Bible. In the early 1900s, this Bible became so popular in American Protestant Bible schools that it was necessary to print literally millions of copies. Yet, in the much-respected footnotes of this very Bible, Scofield injected large doses of the fluid of Futurism also found in the writings of Darby, Todd, Maitland, Bellarmine, and Ribera. Through the Scofield Bible, the Jesuit child reached young adulthood. The doctrine of an Antichrist still to come was becoming firmly established inside 20th-century American Protestantism.

The Moody Bible Institute and the Dallas Theological Seminary have strongly supported the teachings of John Nelson Darby, and this has continued to fuel Futurism’s growth. Then in the 1970s, Pastor Hal Lindsey, a graduate of Dallas Theological Seminary, released his blockbuster book The Late Great Planet Earth. This 177-page, easy-to-read volume brought Futurism to the masses of American Christianity, and beyond. The New York Times labeled it ”The number one best-seller of the decade”. Over 30 million copies have been sold, and it has been translated into over 30 languages. Through The Late Great Planet Earth, Jesuit Futurism took a strong hold over the Protestant Christian world.The book and the series Left Behind is now teaching much of the same Jesuit Futurism as Francisco Ribera, which is hiding the real truth about the Antichrist.


JESUIT Priest and Doctor of Theology

The Spanish Ribera was a Jesuit, a doctor of theology, who started writing (1585) a 500 page commentary on the book of Revelation six years before his death (1591). In his commentary, Ribera believed that the rapture would occur 45 days before the end of the 3-1/2 year tribulation period (also shades of the future PreWrath doctrine). This was the first time the second coming was split into two separate comings, one for the Church and then one at the end of the age with the raptured Church returning with Christ in wrath.

JESUIT Scholar, the most prominent of his time

Also during this period, acclaimed Jesuit apologist Cardinal Robert Bellarmine, wrote ”Polemic Lectures Concerning the Disputed Points of the Christian Belief Against the Heretics of This Time.” His purpose in doing so was to refute the Historic theory of figuring Daniel’s 1260, 1290 and 2300 days as years, relegating these to actual days, e.g., 1260 days, etc. By doing so, the reign of Antichrist was pushed into a future time and negated Catholicism and its pope as the man of sin and his system during his time.


In a book titled, ”Hidden Beast 2,” E. H. Scolfield writes ”There was a Spanish family living in Chili named de Lacunzas. In the year of our Lord, 1731, they had a baby boy. Fifteen years later, the lad was sent to Spain to become a Jesuit priest. Twenty-two years later after that, in 1767, the Jesuits were expelled from Spain because of their brutality. The now Father Manuel de Lacunza y Diaz had to move. He went to Imola, Italy, where he remained for the rest of his life. In Imola, he claimed to be a converted Jew. Under the alias of ‘Rabbi Ben Ezra‘ he wrote a book. The title: ‘The Coming of Messiah in Glory and Majesty.’ In that book he theorized that the church would be ‘raptured’ (taken up to be with the Lord) some 45 days before the real return of Jesus to the Earth. During that 45 days (while the church was in heaven with the Lord) God would judge the wicked still on earth.”

This last sentence shows shades of PreWrath doctrine of today, though that was put together during the 1990s. Lacunza wrote his manuscript in Spanish and it was published in 1812 under a pseudo-name, Juan Josafa [Rabbi] Ben-Ezra. By doing so, his book would more easily be accepted by Protestantism. This proved true as it was placed on Rome’s Index of prohibited books, which only made it sought out by the Protestants.

Lacunza emphasized a return to interpreting prophecy literally from the Futurist viewpoint. He wrote of a future Antichrist and a 1260-day (literal days) tribulation, events just preceding the coming of the Lord. He wrote in opposition to the ‘year-day’ theory of the Historicists (1260 days = 1260 years). He did not promote a pretribulational rapture of the saints at the future time of the Antichrist. His rapture of the saints occurred 45 days before the end of Daniel’s 70th week, probably an influence from Ribera. Lacunza’s book would have a dramatic influence on Edward Irving and his formation of the Pretribulation doctrine. It most likely influenced Irving to add another coming of Christ to the one described in Scripture.

BAPTIST Minister

Edwards believed many events described in Revelations took place shortly after they were written down, so NATURALLY this made him describe Biblical events in a very ”pretribulationistic” way. He wrote the earliest paper on the Pretribulation doctrine, using no references to anyone in the past. It was not written as a document to be seriously considered as the following will show:

”The earliest published reference to a pre-tribulation rapture occurred in 1788. Around 1740, a young Baptist named Morgan Edwards wrote an essay for eschatology class on his views of Bible prophecy. This essay was later published in Philadelphia (178 under the following title: Two Academical Exercises on Subjects Bearing the following Titles Millennium, Last-Novelties. In the article, Edwards made statements which expounded his views concerning a pre-tribulation gathering of the Church. As far as can be determined, Edwards views concerning a pre-trib rapture gained no notoriety nor was this doctrine given any credence in the Church” (The Fallacy of Rapture Theology as revealed by the Word of God by David Redmond).

Tim Warner gives ample reason why Morgan’s writings on a Pretrib rapture were NOT taken seriously by anybody (read more here ):

Do read more well searched documentation from Dave MacPherson and Joe Ortiz .

Christians are warned to not take the mark of the beast or they will lose their salvation

Many Christians will fall away (Matt. 24:9-10, 2 Thess. 2:3) during the latter days, and many will overcome by dying martyrs at that time (Rev. 7:9-17) and that will occur before the rapture (Rev. 20:4-6).

Rev. 7: 9 After this I beheld, and, lo, a great multitude, which no man could number, of all nations, and kindreds, and people, and tongues, stood before the throne, and before the Lamb, clothed with white robes, and palms in their hands— 13 And one of the elders answered, saying unto me, What are these which are arrayed in white robes? and whence came they? 14 And I said unto him, Sir, thou knowest. And he said to me, These are they which came out of great tribulation, and have washed their robes, and made them white in the blood of the Lamb.

(About the beast) Rev. 13: 7 And it was given unto him to make war with the SAINTS, and to overcome them: and power was given him over all kindreds, and tongues, and nations.— 13: 9 If any man have an ear, let him hear. 10 He that leadeth into captivity shall go into captivity: he that killeth with the sword must be killed with the sword. Here is the PATIENCE and the faith of the SAINTS.

Rev. 14: 9 And the third angel followed them, saying with a loud voice, IF any man worship the beast and his image, and receive his mark in his forehead, or in his hand, 10 The same shall drink of the wine of the wrath of God, which is poured out without mixture into the cup of his indignation and he shall be tormented with fire and brimstone in the presence of the holy angels, and in the presence of the Lamb: 12 Here is the PATIENCE of the saints: here are they that keep the commandments of God, and the faith of Jesus.

Rev. 12: 10 And I heard a loud voice saying in heaven, Now is come salvation, and strength, and the kingdom of our God, and the power of his Christ: for the accuser of our brethren is cast down, which accused them before our God day and night. 11 And they overcame him by the blood of the Lamb, and by the word of their testimony and they loved not their lives unto the death.

Why would we be given the following warning if true born against christians will never take the mark of the Beast – based on the idea that they can never fall away and lose their salvation? Probably because they DO risk to fall away and lose their salvation:

Rev. 13: 18 Here is wisdom. Let him that hath understanding count the number of the beast: for it is the number of a man and his number is Six hundred threescore and six.

Common arguments for the pretribulaton rapture

1) Jesus promised the church the following: Since you have kept my command to endure patiently, I will also keep you from the hour of trial that is going to come upon the whole world to test those who live on the earth. (Rev 3:10) Jesus said that he would keep Christians from this hour of trial coming on the whole earth.

ANSWER: The Greek word found in Rev.3:10 and translated keep you from is also found at John 17:11 and 17:15 and can mean keep THROUGH. We are not promised that we will not be part of the tribulation but we will be carried through.

2) Jesus will come at an hour where we do not expect him, Mat. 24:44. If He was coming at some time other than pre-trib, we would know when He was coming.

ANSWER: We are told that Jesus return will be much like in the days of Noah, and people were much unprepared for the flood precisely because they were wicked sinners who did not listen to Noah’s warnings. If we adhere to the warnings (”watch therefore”) then we will be more prepared, just like Noah was. When Jesus returns, then there will indeed be sheep and goats that will suddenly be separated. We must also compare with other Scriptures:

Mark 13: 23 But take ye heed: behold, I have foretold you all things. 24 But in those days, after that tribulation, the sun shall be darkened, and the moon shall not give her light, 25 And the stars of heaven shall fall, and the powers that are in heaven shall be shaken. 26 And THEN shall they see the Son of man coming in the clouds with great power and glory. 27 And then shall he send his angels, and shall gather together his elect from the four winds, from the uttermost part of the earth to the uttermost part of heaven.

According to this Scripture, the gathering of the elect from earth to heaven (the rapture) cannot happen until first there is a radical change in the way we currently view the sun, moon and stars. That change will occur after the tribulation. We are actually assured the day will NOT come unexpectedly IF we make sure we are prepared for it:

Luke 21: 34 And take heed to yourselves, lest at any time your hearts be overcharged with surfeiting, and drunkenness, and cares of this life, and so that day come upon you unawares.

3) In Luke 21:36 Jesus taught Watch ye therefore, and pray always, that ye may be accounted worthy to escape all these things that shall come to pass, and to stand before the Son of man.”

ANSWER: What the saints will escape is what comes after the rapture, which is the wrath of God IF they take heed and obey Jesus prior to it. The tribulation is not the wrath of God. The wrath of God begins at the overlapping point of Rev. 11:18 and Rev. 6:17, which is after the tribulation.

Rev. 11: 18 And the nations were angry, and thy wrath is come, and the time of the dead, that they should be judged, and that thou shouldest give reward unto thy servants the prophets, and to the saints, and them that fear thy name, small and great and shouldest destroy them which destroy the earth.

Rev. 6: 16 And said to the mountains and rocks, Fall on us, and hide us from the face of him that sitteth on the throne, and from the wrath of the Lamb: 17 For the great day of his wrath is come and who shall be able to stand?

4) The church will depart before the antichrist is revealed as per 2 Thess. 2:7,8

ANSWER: The following can be read prior to this verse:

2 Thess. 2: 3 Let no man deceive you by any means: for that day shall not come, except there come a falling away first, and that man of sin be revealed, the son of perdition

It doesn’t say that the church will depart prior to the rapture. At least two events must precede the gathering of the saints to heaven (the rapture) (1) apostasy and (2) the revealing of the antichrist.

The Bible predicts a ”great Apostasy” before the rapture occurs in 2 Thess 2. If the rapture happens at the beginning of the tribulation, then we should not to find any mention of a trumpet after the tribulation begins. But we do.

Mt 24:29 Immediately after the tribulation of those days shall the sun be darkened, and the moon shall not give her light, and the stars shall fall from heaven, and the powers of the heavens shall be shaken󈟯 And he shall send his angels with a great sound of a trumpet, and they shall gather together his elect from the four winds, from one end of heaven to the other.

Mt 10:38 And he that taketh not his cross, and followeth after me, is not worthy of me.39 He that findeth his life shall lose it: and he that loseth his life for my sake shall find it.

1Pe 4:17 For the time is come that judgment must begin at the house of God: and if it first begin at us, what shall the end be of them that obey not the gospel of God?

The city of the new Jerusalem will come down to earth and the saints will already be here on earth.


Augustine, a former gnostic, lived between 354 and 430 AD, and introduced the following heretical views into church and made them popular

1. Absolute predestination (God decides who will be saved/doomed)
2. Impossibility of falling away or apostasy (Eternal Security)
3. Man has no free will (monergism)
4. One cannot know if he/she is saved (since also those who are carnal minded might be saved)
5. God commands impossibilities (God requesting man to stop sinning which he cannot do)
6. The supreme authority of the Roman church
7. Purgatory
8. Prayers for the dead
9. The damnation of unbaptized infants and adults
10. Sex is sinful also within a marriage because depravity is inherited (hence the rise of monasteries)
11. Mary never committed sin, and we do well to worship her/pray to/through her
12. The gifts of healing, prophecy and tongues have ceased
13. Apocrypha is included in the Scriptures
14. Eucharist is necessary for salvation
15. Giving people the official ”saint” title

Unlike Pelagius, Augustine didn’t understand much Greek. The historian Neander observed that Augustine’s teaching ”contains the germ of the whole system of spiritual despotism, intolerance, and persecution, even to the court of the Inquisition”. He instigated bitter persecutions against the Bible-believing Donatists who were striving to maintain pure churches after the apostolic faith.

Augustine interpreted Bible prophecy allegorically among other things teaching that the Catholic Church is the kingdom of God.

Augustine was one of the fathers of the heresy of infant baptism, claiming that unbaptized infants were lost, and calling all who rejected infant baptism ”infidels” and ”cursed”.

Augustine exalted church tradition above the Bible and said,”I should not believe the gospel unless I were moved to do so by the authority of the Catholic Church”.

He was among the first who taught a-millennialism and that the nephilim were descendents of Cain instead of (as the Bible says) a mixture of angels and female human beings.

“By Adam’s transgression, the freedom of’ the human will has been completely lost.”

“By the greatness of the first sin, we have lost the freewill to love God.”

“By subverting the rectitude in which he was created, he is followed with the punishment of not being able to do right” and “the freedom to abstain from sin has been lost as a punishment of sin.”

According to Wikipedia we can learn:

He was contemporary with Jerome and Ambrosius. In his early years he was heavily influenced by Manichaeism and afterward by the Neo-Platonism. Although he later abandoned Neoplatonism some ideas are still visible in his early writings. After his conversion to Christianity, Augustine developed his own approach to philosophy and theology, accommodating a variety of methods and different perspectives. He believed that the grace of Christ was indispensable to human freedom, and he framed the concepts of original sin and just war.

When the Western Roman Empire was starting to disintegrate, Augustine developed the concept of the Catholic Church as a spiritual City of God (in a book with the same name). The Catholic Church and the Anglican Communion view him as an pre-eminent Doctor of the Church, and the patron of the Augustinian religious order. Many Protestants, especially Calvinists, consider him to be one of the theological fathers of Reformation. Much of Augustine’s later life was recorded by his friend Possidius, bishop of Calama (present-day Guelma, Algeria), in his Sancti Augustini Vita. Possidius admired Augustine as a man of powerful intellect and a stirring orator who took every opportunity to defend Christianity against its detractors. Reformed theologians such as Martin Luther and John Calvin would look back to him as their inspiration.

Compared with Augustine, Pelagius was way more consistent with the Bible and shared the same Bible interpretation as the church fathers before him. (Read more about him in another blog post in the same Category.)


Deleted items are struck through. New items are in italics.


  • A. To be eligible for certification, an ETB must employ at each business site location, at least one practitioner who holds either (1) a Doctor of Veterinary Medicine (DVM) or other equivalent veterinary degree with a license to practice within the United States of America, or (2) a Ph.D. with emphasis in reproductive physiology, where the applicants college transcript and dissertation have been reviewed and determined to be acceptable by the Board of Directors of the AETA.
  • B. An ETB must be in business for a minimum of twelve months from the first documented embryo transfer to make application for certification.
  • B. The qualified individual(s) taking the examination must have performed a minimum of 50 embryo recoveries of superovulated females and handled 250 embryos of which at least 100 were transferred to recipients females and at least 100 were frozen within the last 12 months.
  • C. The application must be postmarked no later than 21 days prior to the Professional Competence Examination.
  • D. The ETB must have necessary equipment available and the knowledge to freeze and thaw embryos.
  • E. The ETB must pay an application fee, as outlined on the application for each separate business site where the embryo transfer company operates
  • F. A qualified individual may apply for and take the certification exam without being presently associated with a certified ETB. An individual, not presently associated with a certified ETB, may maintain his or her status as a fully qualified individual by continuing to meet the testing or CE requirements and by paying an annual fee equal to that paid by a certified ETB. This individual could subsequently act as a qualified individual for a certified ETB upon their association with an ETB, which has a current Operating Agreement with the AETA.

Please Note: Because of the timeliness of critical announcements between the Government Liaison Committee and certified ETBs, all newly certified ETBs will be required to supply electronic contact information (e-mail) prior to certification authorization. For additional questions, or to submit your electronic contact information, please contact AETA at (217) 398-2217 or [email protected] .

1111 N. Dunlap Ave., Savoy, IL 61874

Phone: 217-398-2217 FAX: 217-398-4119

Gunning For Hardjo

Hardjo-bovis, the most common leptospirosis in the U.S., ran loose until a vaccine was finally developed for it.

By Wes Ismael

You can be a crack shot and still never bag a trophy if you don't have ammunition.

That pretty well describes the ability of cattle producers to hunt down an type of leptospirosis long thought to be the most common type. Until Pfizer's recent debut of Spirovac®, there were no vaccines with the antigen to guard against hardjo-bovis specifically.

It's not like hardjo-bovis has been hiding out it's everywhere. In a prevalence study by Texas A&M University's (TAMU) Steve Wikse, samples containing hardjo-bovis equated to a national prevalence rate of 42%, with rates as high as 58% in some southern states.

Carol Bolin, an international leptospirosis expert at Michigan State University, analyzed the samples in the study and explains, "Hardjo-bovis is more prevalent in the U.S. than previously estimated. In fact, this study confirms hardjo-bovis is the most common type of leptospirosis in the U.S."

Consequently, Wikse, and associate professor of large animal medicine in TAMU's College of Veterinary Medicine, believes, "If you're in the lower two-thirds of the U.S., and concerned about maximizing reproductive efficiency in your herd, I'd recommend you vaccinate for hardjo-bovis because it's likely your herd is already infected or will become infected with the addition of new animals.

While testing is available, Wikse explains it's so costly that vaccinating makes more economic sense. For perspective, testing protocol would include testing 15 head (basis a herd of 100). The blood and urine analysis cost $50/sample. Add in a veterinarian's call charge and you're talking around $1,000. Then, even if testing proves negative, it's likely the herd will become exposed through additional purchase if they aren't vaccinated.

Although hardjo-bovis is more prevalent in the South, Wikse believes even producers in the northern tier of states should discuss with their veterinarians the use of vaccination as a control program.

While that may sound like too general of a recommendation at first glance, add to the prevalence rate mentioned ear

lier the fact that the test used to identify infection is only 70% sensitive. That means 30% of the animals in the study determined to be negative for hardjo-bovis infection were actually false negatives. Thus, the prevalence rate runs even higher.

"I don't think there's any question about vaccinating for hardjo-bovis in all cattle because of the widespread prevalence of it in beef herds and its proven detrimental effect on fertility. Calves are just too valuable to risk losing," Wikse says.

A delay here, an abortion there

Hardjo-bovis can cause the whole spectrum of maladies associated with reproductive pathogens, including early embryonic death, abortions, stillbirths, weak calves, delayed estrus and overall reductions in reproductive performance.

What makes it tough to determine hardjo-bovis' exact cost is that, unlike other types of leptospirosis that producers have been able to vaccinate against for years, hardjo-bovis tends to cause sub-clinical symptoms. The other types are often associated with acute clinical signs.

According to researchers, the contrast has to do with the fact that hardjo-bovis produces what's termed a "host-adapted infection" in cattle. That means the maintenance host animal lives with the infection, shows no overt symptoms, but serves as a reservoir to continue shedding the organism.

The infection resides in the kidneys and reproductive tract, whereby the pathogen is shed in both urine and reproductive fluids. An added challenge with hardjo-bovis is it can also infect embryos in utero so that a calf can be born as a maintenance host.

Incidental infections (non-host adapted infections) on the other hand—caused by other common lepto types—can cause acute disease symptoms. But little of the responsible pathogen is shed in the urine, meaning there's little animal-to-animal contamination.

Wikse is the first to point out a high prevalence of a disease organism doesn't necessarily equate to a high level of production loss. But, in the case of hardjo-bovis, he says a growing body of evidence suggests controlling it pays more than the cost of control.

fornia dairy heifers. Heifers infected with hardjo-bovis required 3.4 services/conception, compared to 2.1 for uninfected heifers, and they took longer to conceive after first calving𤹜 days vs. 95 days for the uninfected heifers. "You can infer you'd see similar results with beef heifers," Wikse says.

Vaccination and biosecurity

Availability of a vaccine to prevent hardjo-bovis is still new enough that Wikse says there's no industry-standard control program. But he suggests the Cadillac of programs would be vaccinating the whole herd, including bulls, which can pass the infectious agent along in semen as well as urine—the agent enters through small lacerations in the skin, between the toes, etc. Vaccinating mature animals requires treating them with a long-lasting antibiotic first in order to clear up any renal carriers (chronics). With that done, Wikse says you'd vaccinate, booster them in 406 weeks, then plan on boostering them every 12 months.

Where it's not possible to treat the entire herd twice within 406 weeks, Wikse explains, "An option would be to apply the same program, but only to replacement heifers, so that over a period of years the entire herd, given the annual booster vaccinations, should be protected from infection. If it's a herd already experiencing low levels of reproductive efficiency, I wouldn't recommend this slower option," Wikse says.

Keep in mind the focus on replacement heifers also has to do with the fact reproductive pathogens impact younger animals more severely than older ones. SO the actual damage can be largest in the younger population where the prevalence rate is actually lower.

Moreover, even though producers can identify hardjo-bovis infection by means of collecting blood an urine samples from a portion of the herd, then having diagnostic test run, Wikse believes the high prevalence rate makes vaccination without testing a wise economic strategy.

Ron Gill, a TAMU Extension beef specialist, says producers must understand the five-way leptospirosis vaccines they've used in the past don't contain the hardjo-bovis antigen.

"To protect against hardjo-bovis, a vaccine must have the hardjo-bovis antigen in it," Gill says.

More specifically, traditional leptospirosis vaccines have included protection against one type of the organism—hardjo-prajitno—which has never been found in the U.S., while not including an antigen for hardjo-bovis.

So, whether using a monovalent vaccine with the hardjo-bovis antigen, along with a traditional five-way leptospirosis vaccine, or by using a single multivalent vaccine that contains the hardjo-bovis antigen, producers should make sure they're covering all the bases.

"Vaccination for hardjo-bovis is available, and it's highly effective," Wikse emphasizes. "For a comprehensive leptospirosis control program, producers should use a standard five-way lepto vaccine, plus a vaccine that protects specifically against hardjo-bovis, or a miltivalent vaccine that contains it. You need both, since standard five-way lepto vaccines don't have a hardjo-bovis component."

Given the ease with which hardjo-bovis is transmitted, Wikse points out effective control demands vaccination be accompanied by strategic biosecurity. In addition to the age-old wisdom of knowing some history on the source of new additions and keeping new arrivals separate for observation, Wikse says a growing number of producers are testing new additions for infectious diseases before purchasing or introducing them to the herd. These infectious diseases include bovine leukosis, neosporosis, Johne's disease and persistently infected BVD.

Again, because of the testing costs associated with hardjo-bovis, Wikse repeats his advice to address hardjo-bovis by assuming all new introductions are infected. That means treating them with ah long-lasting antibiotic, then vaccinating and boostering than for hardjo-bovis.

Whatever control strategy is chosen, Wikse emphasizes the importance of committing to it over the long haul.

"Diseases are cyclical from year to year. In the case of hardjo-bovis, it may not cause significant reproductive losses every year inside infected herds, but then one year it hits you hard," he says.

With that in mind, Wikse believes hardjo-bovis control "is part of a ranch management program aimed at enhancing production. If your goal is to have as much protection as possible against disease that can potentially interfere with reproductive efficiency, there is no doubt this kind of protection more than pays for itself over time.

"Now that we have an effective vaccine against hardjo0bovis, it's time for producers to meet with their veterinarians to discuss how they can use this breakthrough to make their herds more productive and profitable.

French cuisine – a Guide to French Food

French cuisine may seem sophisticated but is all about combining flavors, mastering basic techniques, and enjoying every bite.

French cuisine has long been known as basic for most kitchens in the western world. If you look at the history of other European food cultures there are always influences of French cuisine. The French cooking techniques have been developed to perfection and therefore many aspiring chefs find the French cuisine daunting. But when the cooking techniques have been mastered, a special elegance and feeling are always seen by the chefs.

The food cooked in France depends mainly on the region. French cuisine is dependent on and varies with local produce, such as apples, berries, haricot verses, leeks, and mushrooms. Bird, beef, lamb, and veal are readily available and venison is popular during hunting season. France is also rich in cheese and wine.

The history of French cuisine

French cuisine dates back to the Middle Ages. French cuisine was the same as Moorish cuisine at the time. Dishes mainly consisted of seasoned meat such as pork, poultry, beef, and fish. French dishes usually depended on the season and the ingredients that were in abundance. To preserve the meat, it was usually smoked and salted. Vegetables were also salted and preserved in jars to be preserved for the winter.

Food preservation was also important during this period. The visual presentation of the food represents the taste. This means that the richer and more attractive the food is presented, the better. Chefs often use products that can be consumed to improve the presentation of food, such as egg yolk, saffron, spinach, and more.

During the 15th and 16th centuries, French cuisine was influenced by Italian cuisine. This is mainly because of Catherine de Medici who married King Henry II. Catherine brought Italian chefs who in turn influenced traditional French cuisine.

At the beginning of the 20th century, French cuisine was challenged by many food critics for being unchanging and rigid. To meet this criticism, changes were made to traditional French cuisine to make the dishes more flexible.

French food and ingredients

French cuisine uses locally grown products. Examples of these products are potatoes, wheat, green beans, carrots, leeks, turnips, eggplant, zucchini, mushrooms, and various fruits. Meat and fish include chicken, pigeon, duck, goose, beef, veal, pork, lamb, mutton, quail, frog, horse, snail, cod, sardine, tuna, salmon, trout, herring, oysters, shrimp and calamari.

Eggs are usually cooked and eaten in the form of omelets, scrambled eggs, or hard-boiled with mayonnaise.

Herbs and spices depend on the region and include tarragon, rosemary, marjoram, lavender, thyme, and sage.

These ingredients can be purchased from grocery stores or specialty retailers. Open street markets are a common sight on special days, and permanent roofs with many types of meat and vegetable traders are available in some cities.

French meals

Breakfast is a quick meal consisting of croissants, butter, and jam, eggs, or ham. This is combined with coffee or tea. Hot chocolate is popular with kids.

The lunch is usually a meal of one or two hours in the middle of the day. The Sunday lunch is usually longer than the daily lunch. Those who work and students usually take their lunch in a cafeteria and usually do not bring their own lunch.

Dinner usually consists of three dishes: starters that are often soup, main course, and an undressed or dessert, sometimes with a salad offered before the cheese or dessert. Yogurt is often preferred as a substitute for the cheese and a common dessert is fresh fruits. Meals usually come with bread, wine, and water. The most common meat dishes are often served with vegetables and rice or pasta.

France is known for its abundant wine consumption, and consumption of wine at meals is a practice in the country.


Ina Poon Bato has garnered several devotees over the years from the locals of Zambales, it even reached its neighboring provinces, even reaching Metro Manila, Southern Luzon, Visayas, Mindanao even outside the Philippines and several miracles were reported through her intercession and it continuously happen up the present.

The venerated image of Ina Poon Bato is a wooden de tallado image based from the original statue that was currently kept at the Church of Iglesia Filipina Independiente or the Aglipayan Church. The image was looking at the beholder and presented with a flowing black hair, her hands in a gesture of prayer or offering. She is carved wearing the typical silhouette of Marian Images that are commonly seen in the country. In the case of Apo Apang, she is carved wearing a white dress with a blue cape which mimics the iconic style of the famed Nuestra Señora de la Paz y Buen Viaje of Antipolo Rizal complete with carved designs in her blue cape. The image is standing on a stony base as a reminder on how she was found by an Aeta.

The original image of Ina Poon Bato now
enshrined at the Iglesia Filipina
Independiente Church in Botolan,
The discovery of Apo Apang

No one knows how the image arrived in Zambales or who carved the image yet there is a persistent legend on how the image came to the Aetas even before the Spanish Missionaries arrived. Djadig, a Aeta leader who was a special man revered for his unmatched skills in hunting had stopped to rest at the bank of the Pastac River when an ethereal voice filled the air, commanding, "Get up, Djadig. Look for me. Come and take me home with you."

The voice had come from the top of a towering rock where Djadig, alone, saw a beautiful lady shining like the sun and dressed in shimmering gold. Her hair was like the sunlight, her eyes dark and filled with compassion. He was drawn to the spot instinctively, like metal to a magnet, all the time his eyes entranced by the vision. As he drew closer his vision dematerialized and the beautiful Lady remained only an image carved on shining gold wood:"Take me home with you," the ethereal voice commanded again, and Djadig instinctively obeyed.

When he reached home, his wife was unwilling to believe his mysterious tale and out of anger, she threw the image into their fire pit. Flames shot up instantly, burning the walls and ceiling, and before help could arrive yet miraculously, the image of Ina Poon Bato was spared and intanct. With due honors, the Negritos reverently enshrined the image on the selfsame rock where Djadig had discovered it.

The arrival of the Missionaries and her fate in the later years

In 1607, shortly after the Augustinian Recollect Missionaries, (on some accounts, its the Dominicans who arrived in Zambales) arrived in Zambales, they heard stories of the Miraculous Lady of the Aetas.

Thinking this to be part of their "anito worship",the priest wanted to see the miraculous Lady.Upon seeing the image,the Recoletos missionaries were amazed."This is unbelievable", cried the young friar."It's our Blessed Mother! How can she be here ahead of us!"the older priest said, "She must have paved the way for our coming."

The friars transferred the image to the Church.There She stayed until after the Philippine Revolution.After executing the Parish priest,Fr. Julian Jimenez,patriot rebels took the image to their newly established church, The Philippine Independent Church.

Rosellyn Enciso Magsaysay with
a large image of Ina Poon Bato
The revival of the Devotion
Eventually in 1945, a Columban priest, Rev. Fr. Patrick Duggan was assigned to say Mass in some barrios including that of Poonbato. With the guidance of Bishop Byrne, donation for a piece of land was negotiated for a church in Poonbato. The donor was Mrs. Gerido from Manila. The church was constructed with the help of Elizabeth Chan, a mosaic artist who studied in Venice.

The priest then went to the Aglipayan Church to have an idea of what the statue of Nuestra Senora de la Paz y Buen Viaje looked like which was supposed to be a copy of the original statue.In 1976, a replica made of the Ina Poon Bato image by the famous religious sculptor, Maximo Vicente.

The Propagation of the devotion

In 1981, moved by an inner prompting ,Mother Therese Vicente H.F.J., Foundress of the Holy Face of Jesus, borrowed the image and brought it to Mrs. Rosellyn Enciso Magsaysay for her to promote the devotion.The diocese of Zambales,under His Eminence Bishop Henry Byrne,gave the devotion and the mission ecclesiastical approval.

Then Fr.Duggan asked Rosellyn Magsaysay to replace his wooden Statue at the grotto that was damaged due to exposure to the rain and sunlight. Then restored by Mrs. Rosellyn Magsaysay.Fr. Duggan gave the wooden statue to her as a gift.Which is now known as the International Pilgrim Image that has been canonically blessed by Pope John Paul II in St. Peter Square,Vatican,Rome.

The large image of Ina Poon Bato in the lahar debris
in 1991
Ina Poon Bato and the Pinatubo eruption

In 1991, one of the most catastrophic volcanic eruption in history took place in Central Luzon, the Eruption of Mount Pinatubo that killed millions of people and destroyed millions worth of crops and properties. However, A moving memento of the 1991 eruption of Mount Pinatubo was the picture of Ina Poon Bato half buried in lahar at her grotto in Botolan,Zambales.

At the same time, Pope John Paul II received a statue of Ina Poon Bato wherein he led the people in prayer for the victims of Mt. Pinatubo eruption.

After the Mount Pinatubo eruption,the lost Shrine of Ina that Bishop Byrne constructed was buried in Lahar,now, a new shrine was constructed at the new site located in Loob Bunga relocaton Center in Botolan ,Zambales.

The present Church of Ina Poon Bato in Botolan, Zambales
The Miracles

Several Miracles were reported through the intercession of Ina Poon Bato that helped strengthened their devotion to the Mother of God over the years. Here are some of the accounts of the miracles of Apo Apang.

A lay woman was assigned in Guam met Rosellyn Magsaysay in Cebu and borrowed Ina Poon Bato for one week to visit different convents.In Manila,before returning Ina,she brought Her to her nephew's house where her father was paralyzed and can't talk for quite sometime.

During the family rosary recitation, all members of the family witnessed when his father answered the rosary very clearly.They attributed the cure to Ina.

A former mayor of Botolan was paralyzed and had been bedridden for years from an unknown illness and his limbs tightly bound to ease the pain.When the Pilgrim Image of Ina came to visit his town, he's surprised to find himself on his feet,standing for hours during the welcome program and supervising of the day's activities.

A devotee testified that when she was unconscious with pain in her stomach, the nuns headed by Sister Mary Ann who takes care of her placed a prayer card of Ina Poon Bato on her stomach and they all prayed. All of a sudden, she woke up and said she felt a big stone as heavy as a hollow block and was amazed upon knowing that it was only a prayer card of Ina Poon Bato and cured her permanently..

The Episcopal Coronation of
Ina Poon Bato
The Episcopal Coronation of the Ina Poon Bato

With numerous miracles that Ina Poon Bato wrought to her devotees, A diocese in Central Luzon area granted the request of the people to crown the image of Ina Poonbato at the Ina Poonbato Shrine in Botolan, Zambales on January 23, 2013. Iba Bishop Florentino Lavarias celebrated the Episcopal coronation.

The Episcopal coronation was held in recognition of the special reverence and devotion the Christian faithful of Zambales and other devotees have shown to Our Lady as Ina Poon Bato.

The Feast day of Ina Poon Bato is celebrated every January 24th with much solemnity, especially in her home in Botolan, Zambales. Pilgrims flock the shrine to ask for her intercession and cures to their illness. The Aetas in turn still have high regard to Apo Apang through the centuries that she became an integral part of their lives.

Wherever the pilgrim image of Ina Poon Bato visits or she is visited by pilgrims to her shrine, She leaves behind blessings and miracles - from instant cures to financial help. Ina Poon Bato continues Her mission of bringing help and hope to those she visits in hospitals, churches, offices and private homes. She strengthens the faith of those she leaves behind and brings them closer to Her Son.

What every pet owner should know about food allergies

“Allergen-free dog food“ touts one product website, while another company advertises “limited ingredient diets”. And the majority of companies that make grain-free diets suggest that they may be helpful for pets with allergies. How true are these claims, though?

As it turns out, food allergies are not as common as many pet food companies and websites may like for you to think. And while food allergies are one possible cause for your dog’s itchy skin and ear infections or your cat’s diarrhea, there are many more likely causes which may have nothing to do with the food

What is a food allergy?

Food allergies occur when an animal’s immune system misidentifies a protein from a food as an invader rather than a food item and mounts an immune response. The end result of this response can be itchy skin or ear and skin infections in some pets, while it may cause vomiting or diarrhea in others. Some unlucky pets will have both skin and gastrointestinal symptoms. However, food allergies have to be distinguished from numerous other more common causes of these issues.

What are other causes of gastrointestinal signs in dogs and cats?

There are dozens of causes of gastrointestinal issues in dogs and cats – parasites, viruses, bacterial infections, pancreatitis, eating something they shouldn’t, and many others. For pets that have symptoms only on certain diets, it could be due to a food allergy, but it could also be due to an intolerance – the food may have too much fat, too much or too little fiber, or have other properties or ingredients that don’t agree with that particular pet, but aren’t due to an allergy. Your vet can help you figure it out.

What are other causes of itching, and skin and ear infections?

The most common cause of itching, skin infections, and ear infections in both dogs and cats are fleas, allergies to fleas, and environmental allergies – dust mites, pollen, grasses. Both flea allergies and environmental allergies are MUCH more common in pets than food allergies but flea, environmental, and food allergies can all have similar symptoms.

Diagnosis of food allergies

One of the most frustrating things about food allergies is that there really isn’t an easy test. While many tests – using blood, saliva, and even hair – that can be performed a veterinarian or purchased by a pet owner online (and even sometimes shockingly, through a Groupon!) advertise that they can diagnose food allergies or “sensitivities”, there is no proof that they work. None of the currently available tests have been shown to be accurate – that non-allergic dogs test negative and allergic dogs (and only allergic dogs) test positive. In fact, multiple studies (including this one just published) have shown that these kinds of tests are not very helpful in diagnosing food allergies, despite their widespread use for this purpose. Research results presented at a veterinary dermatology (skin) conference even showed that some tests “diagnosed” plain water and stuffed animal “fur” as having food allergies.

The “gold standard” or best method that we currently have, for diagnosing food allergies is the dietary elimination trial. This means feeding your pet a diet purchased through a veterinarian or carefully made at home that contains only a few ingredients (typically one protein and one carbohydrate plus necessary fats, vitamins, and minerals) that your pet has never been fed before or that are hydrolyzed (where the proteins are broken down into very small pieces that can hide from the immune system) or purified to remove the parts that are likely to cause allergies. This diet is then fed as THE ONLY FOOD OR FLAVORED THING TO GO INTO YOUR PET’S MOUTH for at least a month but potentially several, depending on your pet’s history and type of issues. If your pet’s signs dramatically improve during the trial, then to confirm a food allergy, your pet then has to go back to the old diet again. A quick relapse is suggestive of an allergy to an ingredient in the old diet. You then go back to the test diet until things get better again before trying one ingredient from the old diet at a time until you identify the specific foods that trigger the problem. Many people switch diets and their pets’ signs improve, but they never re-challenge, so we can’t know if it was coincidence or the diet that actually helped the pet! We see this commonly when the seasons change – pet owners assume it was the diet that caused the improvement in their pet’s allergies when actually it is because seasonal allergens – such as certain pollens – are much reduced.

The “allergy diet” myth

There are no diets that are completely “hypoallergenic”, meaning that they will not cause allergies. The closest we have to this kind of a diet are the hydrolyzed diets that can be purchased through veterinarians. Dogs and cats can be allergic to pretty much any protein or carbohydrate ingredient that can be found in pet food. Feeding a diet with duck, kangaroo, lamb, or venison doesn’t prevent food allergies, it just makes it likely that if your pet develops one, it will be to that protein instead of something more common like pork or chicken. Likewise, there is no evidence that continually changing (rotating) diet ingredients prevents food allergies, but it definitely can limit diet choices to try to diagnose them (since every ingredient your pet has eaten before is no longer available to be used in a dietary elimination trial).

What foods are associated with the most allergies in pets?

While the overall percentage of dogs and cats that have food allergies is low, there are some ingredients that are associated with more of the confirmed cases than others. The most commonly reported food allergies in dogs and cats are chicken, beef, dairy, and egg (and fish for cats). There is nothing particularly special about these ingredients other than they have been the most common ingredients in pet foods for the past few decades, so both cats and dogs often have been exposed to them a lot. What surprises many pet owners is that grains are actually uncommon causes of food allergies – most pets are allergic to animal proteins! Yes, the occasional pet is allergic to a specific grain, or even another plant-sourced ingredient such as potato, or even carrot, but this is less common than an allergy to an animal protein. Unfortunately, this information doesn’t prevent hundreds of companies from advertising their grain-free diets as being good for pets with allergies. Many companies also advertise gluten-free diets for pets. Gluten allergies seem to be extremely rare in pets, having been clearly documented only in Irish Setter dogs, possibly in Border Terrier dogs, and never in cats.

Do I have to use a diet from my vet for a diet trial?

Many companies make over-the-counter diets that they market as being good for dogs with allergies, but they often don’t live up to the hype. Many of these so-called “limited ingredient diets” contain more than 1 protein and 1 carbohydrate source. They may contain fruits and vegetables, alfalfa, kelp, or other ingredients that could interfere with a diet trial. Even those that only have 1 protein and 1 carbohydrate as well as the necessary vitamins and minerals listed on the bag may still contaminated with other ingredients. Several studies recently have shown that large proportions of over-the-counter diets contain ingredients (admittedly sometimes in very small amounts) not listed on the label, likely due at least in part to the common industry practice of running one diet after another in the same manufacturing line at the factory, without a thorough cleaning in between (this is like human foods that are labeled as being made in a factory that also processes nuts – even though they don’t contain nuts, they could have nut residues). Because of the high risk of contamination for over-the-counter diets, we strongly recommend using a veterinary diet for your dietary elimination trial (either novel ingredient or hydrolyzed, depending on the individual pet) or a carefully prepared home-cooked diet designed by a board-certified veterinary nutritionist. The best diets for a food trial have 2-3 ingredients plus fat sources (which are very low risk for allergies) and supplements. Diets for a diet trial should never include fruits and vegetables (unless a vegetable like a potato is one of the 2-3 ingredients), herbs, or ingredients such as kelp because they can make it hard to interpret the results if your pet doesn’t improve on the diet.

If your veterinarian diagnoses a food allergy using a dietary elimination trial with a veterinary diet or home-cooked diet, you may be able to manage your pet afterward with specific over-the-counter diets (once the specific allergen is identified), keeping in mind that you could see a flare-up if you unknowingly purchase a contaminated bag.


വനിതാ വോട്ടവകാശ പ്രസ്ഥാന നേതാവ് എമ്മലൈൻ പാങ്ക്ഹർസ്റ്റിന്റെയും [1] തീവ്ര സോഷ്യലിസ്റ്റ് റിച്ചാർഡ് പാങ്ക്ഹർസ്റ്റിന്റെയും സിൽ‌വിയയുടെയും അഡെല പാങ്ക്ഹർ‌സ്റ്റിന്റെയും സഹോദരിയായിരുന്നു ക്രിസ്റ്റബെൽ പാങ്ക്ഹർസ്റ്റ്. അവരുടെ അച്ഛൻ ഒരു ബാരിസ്റ്ററും അമ്മയ്ക്ക് ഒരു ചെറിയ കടയും ഉണ്ടായിരുന്നു. മാഞ്ചസ്റ്ററിലെ ജനനമരണ രജിസ്ട്രാറായി ജോലി ചെയ്തിരുന്ന ക്രിസ്റ്റബെൽ അമ്മയെ സഹായിച്ചു. സാമ്പത്തിക പോരാട്ടങ്ങൾക്കിടയിലും, സുഖസൗകര്യങ്ങളേക്കാൾ അവരുടെ ഭക്തിയിലുള്ള ഉറച്ച വിശ്വാസമാണ് അവരുടെ കുടുംബത്തെ എല്ലായ്പ്പോഴും പ്രോത്സാഹിപ്പിച്ചത്.

നാൻസി എല്ലെൻ റുപ്രെച്റ്റ് എഴുതി, "ഒരു മധ്യവർഗ കുടുംബത്തിൽ ജനിച്ച ആദ്യത്തെ കുട്ടിയുടെ ഒരു പാഠപുസ്തക ചിത്രീകരണമായിരുന്നു അവർ. കുട്ടിക്കാലത്തും യൗവനത്തിലും അവർ സുന്ദരിയും, ബുദ്ധിമതിയും, ആത്മവിശ്വാസമുള്ളവളും, ആകർഷകമുള്ളവളും, കരിസ്മാറ്റികുമായിരുന്നു." ക്രിസ്റ്റബെൽ അമ്മയുമായും അച്ഛനുമായും ഒരു പ്രത്യേക ബന്ധം ആസ്വദിച്ചു. സാമുവൽ ടെയ്‌ലർ കോളറിഡ്ജിന്റെ കവിതയായ "ക്രിസ്റ്റബെൽ" ("സുന്ദരിയായ ക്രിസ്റ്റബെൽ / അവരുടെ അച്ഛൻ ആരെയാണ് നന്നായി സ്നേഹിക്കുന്നത്") എന്ന കവിതയിൽ നിന്ന് അവർക്ക് "ക്രിസ്റ്റബെൽ" എന്ന് പേരിട്ടു. [2] 1928-ൽ അമ്മയുടെ മരണം ക്രിസ്റ്റബെലിനെ വല്ലാതെ ബാധിച്ചു. [3] [4]

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