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This Day In History: 01/08/1877 - Crazy Horse's Last Battle

This Day In History: 01/08/1877 - Crazy Horse's Last Battle



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The Watergate scandal during President Nixon's presidency, Crazy Horse's last battle near Camp Sheridan and George Washington's first State of the Union address is covered in This Day in History video. This Day in History, January 8. E. Howard Hunt and G. Gordon Liddy were tried for their involvement in Watergate. Seven other men also went to trial.


Crazy Horse's last battle

This photoprint of an illustration of the Battle of Wolf Mountain appeared in Frank Leslie's Illustrated Newspaper on May 5, 1877.

On January 8, 1877, Crazy Horse fought his final battle against the United States Army before agreeing to come into Fort Robinson, Nebraska in May that same year. The battle is often known as Wolf Mountain, however, to be more accurate about the exact location, Donovin Sprague, Lakota historian, author, and descendant of Crazy Horse, refers to it as the Battle of Belly Butte.

The signing of the Fort Laramie Treaty of 1868 had granted the Lakota, Cheyenne, and other tribes continued access to their original homelands in the Black Hills. However, once gold was discovered in the hills, an influx of miners and other settlers flooded the area. When the tribes tried to defend their rights, the U.S. abrogated the treaty and threatened to use force against any Indians who were not on the Great Sioux Reservation by January 31, 1876.

At that time, Sitting Bull and Crazy Horse were the most influential leaders who had still not brought their people into the agencies or signed any agreements with the government. Their resistance was a thorn in the side of the government, and the army believed if Sitting Bull and Crazy Horse were brought into the agencies, the Plains Wars would be over.

However, in the fall of 1876, even those who had already come into the agencies were not so quick to return after their summer of hunting. Disillusioned with the government’s lies and broken promises, relationships between the agencies and the tribes grew even more strained. Congress threatened to withhold rations until the tribes released the Black Hills to the U.S., and there was growing concern that the tribes’ horses and guns would be seized by the Army. Between 1,200 and 2,500 lodges of Indians had left the agencies for their summer hunt, but as fall approached, many of those expected to return to the agencies did not.

Even though a cold, early winter caused a scarcity of food, the Army recognized that Crazy Horse’s band had increased in size with nearly 250 lodges made up Oglalas, Brules, Northern Cheyenne and perhaps others.

According to Sprague, “The U.S. and Colonel Nelson A. Miles had decided on a strategy of constant pursuit and attack upon the Lakota and Cheyenne villages who had not surrendered. The plan was to attack Indian villages in the coldest weather, despite frigid temperatures and deep snow.”

Camped among the Wolf Mountains, Montana’s winter cold and snow increasingly taxed the resources of Crazy Horse’s band. As horses died of starvation, they became a source of food. Crazy Horse knew that Dull Knife’s band of Cheyenne had escaped from Fort Robinson and endured terrible hardships including frozen limbs and babies who froze to death at their mother’s breast. The Montana Magazine of Western History wrote that Black Elk, who was a young man at the time, was aware of the pressure Crazy Horse was feeling.

Usually, Sprague said, the winter was a relaxing time in the lodges with storytelling, and except for hunting, most of the Lakota did not venture too far from the camps. However, in the winter of 1876, Colonel Miles knew their life and made constant attacks “pursuing these so-called hostile groups throughout the Tongue River and Powder River country,” Sprague said, adding that when the Army came upon the band at Belly Butte, the soldiers were not sure who was in the camp until they engaged in battle, or possibly even later.

On New Years Day, 1877, Miles came upon Crazy Horse’s camp, which was occupied by 600 lodges that stretched across three miles of the Tongue River Valley. Miles led attacks on January 1, 3, 5, 7, and finally a five-hour battle on the 8th.

Crazy Horse’s band was attacked in three feet of snow, and the entire battle took place with Crazy Horse’s warriors on foot due to the weakness of the starving horses. The band quickly ran out of ammunition and resumed the use of bows and arrows. Throughout the battle, the Lakota lost three men including Big Crow.

After the battle, scouts and couriers from Fort Robinson arrived and promised Crazy Horse that if he brought his band in, they would all be treated well. A month later, Few Tails and Hunts the Enemy returned to Fort Robinson with the news that Crazy Horse would come into the agency. Other major figures such as Sitting Bull, Gall, and their followers moved their camps to Canada.

“Our warriors held out as long as they could—starvation and death would have been the next step had they not surrendered,” Sprague noted. He also said that there is a quote from an interview with High Backbone, also known as Hump II, who was present at the battle. High Backbone said they never attacked the soldiers or knew why the soldiers attacked. “Hump fought because he had no choice—fight or be killed. During this interview he looked at some of the soldiers and asked them, ‘Why did you attack us?’ No one replied to his question,” Sprague said.


January 08, 2005

January 8

1642: The astronomer Galileo dies in Italy at the age of 77.

1867: The Congress overrided the veto of the bill which granted all male citizens the right to vote in the District of Columbia.

1877: Crazy Horse fights his last battle on this day.

1941: William Randolph Hearst forbid the printing of the ad for Citizen Kane in any of his newspapers.

1962: The Mona Lisa is exhibited in Washington D.C.

1966: The last shoe of Shindig aired on ABC.

1973: The Peace talks resume in Paris during the Vietnam War.

1976: The book Ragtime wins the National Book Critics Circle Award.

1993: The first Elvis Presley stamp is issued

January 7

1782: The First Commmercial Bank Opens its doors for business.

1785: Jean- Pierre Blanchard and John Jeffries flew across theEnglish channel in a hot air balloon. They were the first people to do it.

1924: George Gershwin, composer, finishes Rhapsody in Blue.

1929: George Burns and Gracie Allen were married today.

1953: Harry Truman annonced that the US had developed the hydrogen bomb.

1959: The United States recognizes a new Cuban government.

1965: The civilian government was restored in Saigon.

1985: GM put into motion the first Saturn

1989: The first Dodge Viper was shown at the North American International Automobile
Show.

1999: President Bill Clintons impeachment trial began today.

January 6

1066: Harold Godwineson (Harold II) was crowned king of England

1912: New Mexico joined the Union (the 47th state)

1919: The 26th president dies, Theodore Roosevelt, at the age of 60.

1936: The debute of Porky Pig in the cartoon "Gold Diggers of '49"

1958: The Soviet Union announced that they were reducing the number of troops they had in the standing army.

1973: Schoolhouse Rock premiered for the first time on ABC.

1973: Hitlers car is put up for sale. It was sols at an auction for $153,000.

1980: Jimmy Carter saved Chrystler Car Company by giving them a $1.2 billon in federal loans.

1983: Ronald Reagan signs the bill to hike the gas tax, to help make roads and bridges better.

1993: Dizzy Gillespie, renowned jazz trumpeter, dies of cancer.

1994: Nancy Kerrigan was attacked by Tonya Harding.

2001: Congress declares George Bush the winner of the 2000 election.


2 thoughts on &ldquo The Last Battle of Crazy Horse &rdquo

Very strange how I ended up on this site….I am living in Switzerland but born in Scotland and just recently found out I descend from Irish ‘Tinkers’!
Most probably not who you are looking for but really nice to read your page.
Caroline

Thank you very much for the comment! My wife has Swiss relatives and a few times a year they make fondue with cheese they bring back from Switzerland. Good stuff! Mr. Tinker was actually of Scottish/English descent. He built a Swiss-style chalet because he liked the architecture. Have a great day and I hope you keep reading the Blog!
-Steve


Historical Events in 1877

Battle of Interest

Jan 8 Crazy Horse and his warriors fight their last battle with the United States Cavalry at Wolf Mountain (Montana Territory).

    US Assay Office in Helena, Montana opens Color organ (for light shows) patented, by Bainbridge Bishop Arthur Tooth, an Anglican clergyman is taken into custody after being prosecuted for using ritualist practices

Election of Interest

Jan 25 Congress establishes the Electoral Commission to determine the disputed presidential election between Rutherford B. Hayes and Samuel J. Tilden

    Storm flood ravages Dutch coastal provinces 1st Guernsey Cattle Club organizes (NYC) 1st news dispatch by telephone, between Boston & Salem, Massachusetts US railroad builders strike against wage reduction 1st cantilever bridge in US completed, Harrodsburg, Kentucky US Electoral Commission declares Rutherford B. Hayes (R) winner of the presidential election with an electoral vote of 185-184 against Samuel J. Tilden (D) Rutherford B. Hayes takes the oath of office privately as official inauguration day falls on a Sunday Tchaikovski's incomplete ballet "Zwanenmeer" premieres in Moscow

Event of Interest

Mar 4 Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky's ballet "Swan Lake" has its world premiere, performed by the Bolshoi Ballet in Moscow

Earmuffs on, shhhh!

Mar 13 American Chester Greenwood patents earmuffs after inventing them at age 15

    Commencement of 1st Test Cricket, Australia v England at the MCG, Melbourne, Australia Charles Bannerman completes 1st Test cricket century, 165 v Eng Australian / English all-rounder Billy Midwinter completes Test cricket's first 5-wicket haul, 5-78 in the first ever Test match v England in Melbourne

Event of Interest

Mar 18 US President Rutherford B. Hayes appoints Frederick Douglass marshal of Washington, D.C.

    Australia beat England by 45 runs in very first Test match 39th Grand National: Fred Hobson aboard 15/1 shot Austerlitz wins by 4 lengths from Congress University boat race between Oxford & Cambridge ends in a dead heat English FA Cup Final, Kennington Oval, London: Wanderers beat Oxford University, 2–1 (a.e.t.) Wanderers' 4th title British High Commissioner Sir Bartle Frere arrives in Capetown

Event of Interest

Mar 31 Test Cricket debut of feared Australian fast bowler Fred "The Demon" Spofforth Australia loses 2nd Test by 4 wickets vs England at Melbourne Cricket Ground

    The family with samurai antecedents who responded to the Saigo army in Ōita Nakatsu rebels. 1st Easter egg roll held on White House lawn

Flash! Bang! It's the Human Cannonball!

Apr 2 1st human cannonball act performed by 14-year-old Rossa Matilda Richter known as Zazel at the Royal Aquarium in London

    British Open Men's Golf, Musselburgh Links: Jamie Anderson wins his first of 3 consecutive Championships beats fellow Scot Bob Pringle by 2 shots Federal troops withdrawn from Columbia, SC British annex Transvaal, South Africa Catcher's mask 1st used in a baseball game Boston-Somerville installs the world's 1st telephone in Massachusetts

Music Premiere

Apr 27 Jules Massenet's opera "Le Roi de Lahore" (The King of Lahore) premieres at the Palais Garnier, Paris, France

Event of Interest

May 5 Indian Wars: Sitting Bull leads his band of Lakota into Canada to avoid harassment by the United States Army under Colonel Nelson Miles

    Cincinnati Enquirer first uses term "Bullpen" to indicate foul territory 1st Westminster Dog Show held Mihail Kogălniceanu reads, in the Chamber of Deputies, the Declaration of Independence of Romania. This day becomes the Independence Day of Romania. Ottawa Rough Riders 1st outside competition vs Britannia Caesar Franck's "Lesson Eolides" premieres May 16, 1877 political crisis in France. Edwin T Holmes installs 1st telephone switchboard burglar alarm 3rd Kentucky Derby: Billy Walker aboard Baden-Baden wins in 2:38 5th Preakness: C Holloway aboard Cloverbrook wins in 2:45.5 Society of American Artists forms US troops authorized to pursue bandits into Mexico 11th Belmont: C Holloway aboard Cloverbrook wins in 2:46

Event of Interest

Jun 15 Henry Ossian Flipper becomes 1st African American to graduate from West Point Military Academy


"The Charbor Chronicles"

Once again, it should be reiterated, that this does not pretend to be a very extensive history of what happened on this day (nor is it the most original - the links can be found down below). If you know something that I am missing, by all means, shoot me an email or leave a comment, and let me know!

Jan 8, 1877: Crazy Horse fights last battle

On this day in 1877, Crazy Horse and his warriors--outnumbered, low on ammunition and forced to use outdated weapons to defend themselves--fight their final losing battle against the U.S. Cavalry in Montana.

Six months earlier, in the Battle of Little Bighorn, Crazy Horse and his ally, Chief Sitting Bull, led their combined forces of Sioux and Cheyenne to a stunning victory over Lieutenant Colonel George Custer (1839-76) and his men. The Indians were resisting the U.S. government's efforts to force them back to their reservations. After Custer and over 200 of his soldiers were killed in the conflict, later dubbed "Custer's Last Stand," the American public wanted revenge. As a result, the U.S. Army launched a winter campaign in 1876-77, led by General Nelson Miles (1839-1925), against the remaining hostile Indians on the Northern Plains.

Combining military force with diplomatic overtures, Nelson convinced many Indians to surrender and return to their reservations. Much to Nelson's frustration, though, Sitting Bull refused to give in and fled across the border to Canada, where he and his people remained for four years before finally returning to the U.S. to surrender in 1881. Sitting Bull died in 1890. Meanwhile, Crazy Horse and his band also refused to surrender, even though they were suffering from illness and starvation. On January 8, 1877, General Miles found Crazy Horse's camp along Montana's Tongue River. U.S. soldiers opened fire with their big wagon-mounted guns, driving the Indians from their warm tents out into a raging blizzard. Crazy Horse and his warriors managed to regroup on a ridge and return fire, but most of their ammunition was gone, and they were reduced to fighting with bows and arrows. They managed to hold off the soldiers long enough for the women and children to escape under cover of the blinding blizzard before they turned to follow them. Though he had escaped decisive defeat, Crazy Horse realized that Miles and his well-equipped cavalry troops would eventually hunt down and destroy his cold, hungry followers. On May 6, 1877, Crazy Horse led approximately 1,100 Indians to the Red Cloud reservation near Nebraska's Fort Robinson and surrendered. Five months later, a guard fatally stabbed him after he allegedly resisted imprisonment by Indian policemen. In 1948, American sculptor Korczak Ziolkowski began work on the Crazy Horse Memorial, a massive monument carved into a mountain in South Dakota. Still a work in progress, the monument will stand 641 feet high and 563 feet long when completed.




Jan 8, 1976: Chinese leader Zhou Enlai dies

Zhou Enlai, premier of the People's Republic of China (PRC) since 1949, dies of cancer at age 77. Zhou was second to Mao Zedong, the leader of the revolution that brought a communist regime to China, in terms of importance in the PRC. Beyond his significance as a leader of communist China, Zhou was instrumental in the negotiations that resulted in the U.S. recognition of the PRC in 1979.

Zhou was born in 1898, and he was heavily involved in the Chinese Communist Party (CCP) by the 1920s. He rose quickly through the party ranks and became one of Mao Zedong's most trusted advisors, particularly valued for his skill at negotiations and diplomacy. These skills were crucial during the 1930s, when the CCP found it necessary to collaborate with its enemy, the Chinese Nationalists, to oppose Japanese aggression. In 1949, the CCP was victorious in its civil war against the Nationalists and Zhou was appointed premier and foreign minister of the new government.

During the 1950s, he represented China at various diplomatic gatherings, including the 1954 Geneva Conference and the 1955 Asian-African Conference in Bandung. He was also a stabilizing force inside China during the tumultuous years of the Cultural Revolution and its resultant political tensions.

In the early 1970s, Zhou embarked on a program to rebuild relations with the United States, which had refused to recognize the Chinese communist government. In 1972, he and President Richard Nixon shocked the world by meeting and agreeing to work for closer political and economic relations between the two nations. These talks eventually did bear fruit in 1979, when the United States formally recognized the PRC.

Here's a more detailed look at events that transpired on this date throughout history:


Crazy Horse fights last battle | JANUARY 08

On this day in 1877, Crazy Horse and his warriors–outnumbered, low on ammunition and forced to use outdated weapons to defend themselves–fight their final losing battle against the U.S. Cavalry in Montana.

Six months earlier, in the Battle of Little Bighorn, Crazy Horse and his ally, Chief Sitting Bull, led their combined forces of Sioux and Cheyenne to a stunning victory over Lieutenant Colonel George Custer (1839-76) and his men. The Indians were resisting the U.S. government’s efforts to force them back to their reservations. After Custer and over 200 of his soldiers were killed in the conflict, later dubbed “Custer’s Last Stand,” the American public wanted revenge. As a result, the U.S. Army launched a winter campaign in 1876-77, led by General Nelson Miles (1839-1925), against the remaining hostile Indians on the Northern Plains.

Combining military force with diplomatic overtures, Nelson convinced many Indians to surrender and return to their reservations. Much to Nelson’s frustration, though, Sitting Bull refused to give in and fled across the border to Canada, where he and his people remained for four years before finally returning to the U.S. to surrender in 1881. Sitting Bull died in 1890. Meanwhile, Crazy Horse and his band also refused to surrender, even though they were suffering from illness and starvation.

On January 8, 1877, General Miles found Crazy Horse’s camp along Montana’s Tongue River. U.S. soldiers opened fire with their big wagon-mounted guns, driving the Indians from their warm tents out into a raging blizzard. Crazy Horse and his warriors managed to regroup on a ridge and return fire, but most of their ammunition was gone, and they were reduced to fighting with bows and arrows. They managed to hold off the soldiers long enough for the women and children to escape under cover of the blinding blizzard before they turned to follow them.

Though he had escaped decisive defeat, Crazy Horse realized that Miles and his well-equipped cavalry troops would eventually hunt down and destroy his cold, hungry followers. On May 6, 1877, Crazy Horse led approximately 1,100 Indians to the Red Cloud reservation near Nebraska’s Fort Robinson and surrendered. Five months later, a guard fatally stabbed him after he allegedly resisted imprisonment by Indian policemen.

In 1948, American sculptor Korczak Ziolkowski began work on the Crazy Horse Memorial, a massive monument carved into a mountain in South Dakota. Still a work in progress, the monument will stand 641 feet high and 563 feet long when completed.


Watch the video: Crazy Horse - Most Metal Commanders of History DOCUMENTARY (August 2022).