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James Cook - English Navigator (1728-1779). It was the first navigator to map the Antarctic shoreline.
Born in Maton, Yorkshire, England, James Cook is considered one of the greatest captains of the English navy and one of the best explorers of the time of the great discoveries, begun by Christopher Columbus. Cook learned the craft while working on commercial boats that sailed across the waters of the North Sea and the Baltic Sea, and in 1755, at the age of 27, took command of his first Royal Navy ship. In charge of North America, he surveyed the St. Lawrence River and the coast of Newfoundland, Canada. Proving himself a navigational genius, he gained command in 1768 of an expedition that led English astronomers to observe the planet Venus in the South Pacific. After that, he explored the region for the British crown.
Cook also visited New Zealand, where a group of fifteen islands still bears his name, and became the first person to chart their complete shoreline. In 1770 he visited New Guinea and claimed the east coast of Australia for England under the name of New South Wales.
On his first trip, Cook had explored more of this territory than anyone else. In 1772, he set sail again, this time to find the much-commented but undiscovered 'Southern Continent'. He found him and became the first man to map the Antarctic shoreline. On this trip he traveled 112,000 kilometers. With that, it went down in history as the first person to sail around the earth from east to west.
On his third voyage in 1776, Cook discovered the islands of Hawaii, which he called the Sandwich Islands, named after John Montagu (1718-1792), the fourth Earl of Sandwich and first lord of the British Admiralty. Cook then explored the US coast from Oregon to Alaska and sailed across the Bering Strait in the Arctic Ocean. During the trip in 1779, he was attacked by natives in Hawaii. Like Ferdinand Magellan, he also died on an exploration trip.
The greatest contribution of Cook's explorations was to pave the way for settlement in Australia and New Zealand. In addition, he was the first person to explore every corner of the earth on the shores and inland of the world's largest ocean, the Pacific.