Global warming is a widespread climate phenomenon - a significant rise in Earth's surface temperature - that has hit the planet for the last 150 years.
This phenomenon occurs as a result of changes occurring on the planet, whether from natural or anthropogenic (caused by man) causes.
According to scientists at the United Nations Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), the twentieth century was the hottest in the last five centuries with average temperatures rising between 0.3 ° C and 0 ° C, 6 ° C. This increase seems insignificant, but it is sufficient to alter the entire climate of a region and to profoundly affect biodiversity, thereby triggering several environmental disasters.
A portion of the scientific community that studies global warming attributes this phenomenon as a natural process, stating that planet Earth is going through a natural transition phase, a dynamic and long process, moving from the ice age to the interglacial era, with rising temperatures. consequence of this phenomenon.
However, the main attributions for global warming are related to human activities, which by increasing the burning of fossil fuel gases such as oil, coal and natural gas intensify the greenhouse effect. Burning these substances produces gases such as carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CO4) and nitrous oxide (N2O), which retain the heat from solar radiation, as if the planet were inside a greenhouse, as a result of this process we have increased temperature.
Deforestation of forests and constant soil sealing are factors that also contribute significantly to climate change.
Another consequence of global warming is the melting of the ice caps. According to experts, the most affected region is the Arctic Ocean. In recent years, the ice sheet that covers this ocean has become 40% thinner and its area has been reduced by approximately 15%. The major mountain ranges on the planet are also losing their mass of ice and snow.
Alpine glaciers have shrunk by about 40 percent, and according to an article in the British journal Science, the snow cover that covers Mount Kilimanjaro in Tanzania could disappear in the coming decades.
As a way of minimizing global warming, in 1997, one hundred and sixty-two countries signed the Kyoto Protocol. According to the document, developed nations are committed to reducing their share of greenhouse gas emissions by at least 5% from 1990 levels. This target has to be met between 2008 and 2008. 2012. However, several countries have made no effort to achieve this goal by not adhering to the Treaty, the main one being the US.
Currently, the main greenhouse gas emitting countries are respectively China, the United States, Russia, India, Brazil, Japan, Germany, Canada, the United Kingdom and South Korea.
In 2007, the UN through the IPCC wrote and published three texts. On February 1, the IPCC blamed human activity on global warming. He also warned that if current air pollution levels continue to rise, the planet's average temperature will rise 4 degrees by the end of the century. The following report, presented in April, addressed the catastrophic potential of the phenomenon and concluded that it could lead to mass extinctions, rising oceans and devastation in coastal areas.
However the surprise came in the third document, released in May. Generally speaking, the text says: if man is the cause of the problem, it can also solve it. And for a relatively modest price compared to the size of the problem. It would have to be investing just over 0.12% of world gross domestic product per year by 2030.
The destined value of world GDP would be spent by governments, both by financing the development of clean technologies and by consumers, who would need to change some of their habits. The ultimate goal would be to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, which prevent the dissipation of greenhouse gases. heat that warms the atmosphere.
Only the publication of IPCC reports will not contain global warming. To achieve significant results, the effort to reduce pollution needs to be worldwide.